In 2008, all 18 regional referral NICUs in New York state adopted central-line insertion and maintenance bundles and agreed to use checklists to monitor maintenance-bundle adherence and report checklist use. We sought to confirm whether adopting standardized bundles and using central-line maintenance checklists reduced central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI).
This was a prospective cohort study that enrolled all neonates with a central line who were hospitalized in any of 18 NICUs. Each NICU reported CLABSI and central-line utilization data and checklist use. We used χ(2) to compare CLABSI rates in the preintervention (January to December 2007) versus the postintervention (March to December 2009) periods and Poisson regression to model adjusted CLABSI rates.
Each study period included more than 55 000 central-line days and more than 200 000 patient-days. CLABSI rates decreased 67% statewide (risk ratio: 0.33 [95% confidence interval: 0.27-0.41]; P < .0005); after adjusting for the altered central-line-associated bloodstream infection definition in 2008, by 40% (risk ratio: 0.60 [95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.75]; P < .0005). A total of 13 of 18 NICUs reported using maintenance checklists for 10% to 100% of central-line days. The checklist-use rate was associated with the CLABSI rate (coefficient: -0.57, P = .04). A total of 10 of 18 NICUs were independent CLABSI rate predictors, ranging from 1 site with greatly reduced risk (incidence rate ratio: 0.04, P < .0005) to 1 site with greatly increased risk (incidence rate ratio: 2.87, P < .0005).
Although standardizing central-line care elements led to a significant statewide decline in NICU CLABSIs, site of care remains an independent risk factor. Using maintenance checklists reduced CLABSIs.
"A number of studies demonstrate the effectiveness of implementing standardized procedures and care bundles for CVC insertion and CVC care on CLABSI or CRBSI reduction. Elements for prevention upon CVC insertion include the use of maximum sterile barrier precautions, (alcohol-based) chlorhexidine for skin antisepsis, a checklist to stop non-emergent insertion and establishing fully equipped insertion carts [15-21]. Elements for prevention in CVC care include standardization of dressing change, skin antisepsis and replacement of tubing, and improving workflow at the patient [9,15-21]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are indispensable in modern pediatric medicine. CVCs provide secure vascular access, but are associated with a risk of severe complications, in particular bloodstream infection. We provide a review of the recent literature about the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in children and its prevention. Variations in blood sampling and limitations in blood culturing interfere with accurate and timely diagnosis of CRBSI. Although novel molecular testing methods appear promising in overcoming some of the present diagnostic limitations of conventional blood sampling in children, they still need to solidly prove their accuracy and reliability in clinical practice. Standardized practices of catheter insertion and care remain the cornerstone of CRBSI prevention although their implementation in daily practice may be difficult. Technology such as CVC impregnation or catheter locking with antimicrobial substances has been shown less effective than anticipated. Despite encouraging results in CRBSI prevention among adults, the goal of zero infection in children is still not in range. More high-quality research is needed in the field of prevention, accurate and reliable diagnostic measures and effective treatment of CRBSI in children.
"Schulman et al.27) reported that statewide application of standardized, evidence-based central-line insertion and maintenance bundles substantially reduced NICU CLABSIs. Bundles are defined as a limited number of specific practices essential for effective and safe patient care that, when implemented together, result in additional improvements in patient outcomes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are regularly used in intensive care units, and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) remains a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in preterm infants. Increased survival rate of extremely-low-birth-weight infants can be partly attributed to routine practice of CVC placement. The most common types of CVCs used in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) include umbilical venous catheters, peripherally inserted central catheters, and tunneled catheters. CRBSI is defined as a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (BSI) with either a positive catheter tip culture or a positive blood culture drawn from the CVC. BSIs most frequently result from pathogens such as gram-positive cocci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and sometimes gram-negative organisms. CRBSIs are usually associated with several risk factors, including prolonged catheter placement, femoral access, low birth weight, and young gestational age. Most NICUs have a strategy for catheter insertion and maintenance designed to decrease CRBSIs. Specific interventions slightly differ between NICUs, particularly with regard to the types of disinfectants used for hand hygiene and appropriate skin care for the infant. In conclusion, infection rates can be reduced by the application of strict protocols for the placement and maintenance of CVCs and the education of NICU physicians and nurses.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics 09/2011; 54(9):363-7. DOI:10.3345/kjp.2011.54.9.363
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSIs) have come to be recognized as preventable adverse events that result from lapses in technique at multiple levels of care. CLABSIs are associated with increased mortality and adverse outcomes that may have lifelong consequences. This review provides a summary of evidence-based strategies to reduce CLABSI in the newborn intensive care unit that have been described in the literature over the past decades. Implementation of these strategies in "bundles" is also discussed, citing examples of successful quality improvement collaboratives. The methods of implementation require an understanding of the scientific data and technical developments, as well as knowledge of how to influence change within the unique and complicated milieu of the newborn intensive care unit.
Clinics in perinatology 03/2010; 37(1):247-72. DOI:10.1016/j.clp.2010.01.014 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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