Mitochondrial TRAP1 regulates the unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum.
ABSTRACT Stress in mitochondria or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) independently causes cell death. Recently, it was reported that ER stress causes mitochondrial dysfunction via p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA). However, little is known regarding the mitochondria molecules that mediate ER dysfunction. The present study revealed that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), which localizes in the mitochondria, is associated with the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the ER. TRAP1 knockdown activated the ER-resident caspase-4, which is activated by ER stress, to induce cell death in humans. However, TRAP1 knockdown cells did not show a significant increase in the level of cell death at least within 24 h after early phase of ER stress in comparison with that of the control cells. This finding could be attributed to a number of reasons. TRAP1 knockdown failed to activate caspase-9, which is activated by activated caspase-4. In addition, TRAP1 knockdown increased the basal level of GRP78/BiP expression, which protects cells, and decreased the basal level of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression, which induces cell death, even under ER stress. Thus, the present study revealed that mitochondria could be a potential regulator of the UPR in the ER through mitochondrial TRAP1.
- SourceAvailable from: Lubna Al-Khalili[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: r a n s l a t i o n a l p r o t e o m i c s 2 (2 0 1 4) 25–38 ScienceDirect j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : h t t p : / / w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / t r p r o t In vitro Proteome Oxidative stress defense Metabolism Gene regulation Cytoskeleton Protein homeostasis maintenance Protein folding and degradation a b s t r a c t The development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) involves a complex array of metabolic defects in skeletal muscle. An in vitro cell culture system excludes the acute effects of external systemic factors existing in vivo. Thus, we aimed to determine whether intrinsic differences in the protein profile exist in cultured myotubes derived from T2D versus normal glucose tolerant (NGT) healthy people. Applying two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis technology (2-D DIGE), the abundance of 47 proteins differed in myotubes derived from T2D patients versus NGT donors. Proteins involved in fatty acid and amino acid metabolism, TCA cycle, mitochondrial function, mRNA processing, DNA repair and cell survival showed higher abundance, while proteins associated with redox signaling (PARK7; Parkinson disease 7), glutathione metabolism (glutathione S-transferase, GST, isoforms T1, P1 and M2), and protein dynamics (heat shock protein, HSP, isoform B1 and 90A) showed reduced abundance in myotubes derived from T2D versus NGT donors. Consistent with our proteome analysis results, the level of total glutathione was reduced in myotubes obtained from T2D versus NGT donors. Taken together, our data provide evidence for intrinsic dif-ferences in the profile of proteins involved in energy metabolism, cellular oxidative stress, protein dynamics and gene regulation in myotubes derived from T2D patients. These dif-ferences thereby suggest a genetic or epigenetic influence on protein content level, which can be further investigated to understand the molecular underpinnings of T2D progression and lead to new therapeutic approaches.
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ABSTRACT: TRAP1 is a mitochondrial antiapoptotic protein up-regulated in several human malignancies. However, recent evidences suggest that TRAP1 is also localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it is involved in ER stress protection and protein quality control of tumor cells. Based on the mechanistic link between ER stress, protection from apoptosis and drug resistance, we questioned whether these novel roles of TRAP1 are relevant for its antiapoptotic function. Here, we show for the first time that: i) TRAP1 expression is increased in about 50% of human breast carcinomas (BC), and ii) the ER stress protecting activity of TRAP1 is conserved in human tumors since TRAP1 is co-upregulated with the ER stress marker, BiP/Grp78. Notably, ER-associated TRAP1 modulates mitochondrial apoptosis by exerting a quality control on 18 kDa Sorcin, a TRAP1 mitochondrial client protein involved in TRAP1 cytoprotective pathway. Furthermore, this TRAP1 function is relevant in favoring resistance to paclitaxel, a microtubule stabilizing/ER stress inducer agent widely used in BC therapy. Indeed, the transfection of a TRAP1 deletion mutant, whose localization is restricted to the ER, in shTRAP1 cells enhances the expression of mitochondrial Sorcin and protects from apoptosis induced by ER stress agents and paclitaxel. Furthermore, BC cells adapted to paclitaxel or ER stress inducers share common resistance mechanisms: both cell models exhibit cross-resistance to single agents and the inhibition of TRAP1 by siRNAs or gamitrinib, a mitochondria-directed HSP90 family inhibitor, in paclitaxel-resistant cells rescues the sensitivity to paclitaxel. These results support the hypothesis that ER-associated TRAP1 is responsible for an extramitochondrial control of apoptosis and, therefore, an interference of ER stress adaptation through TRAP1 inhibition outside of mitochondria may be considered a further compartment-specific molecular approach to rescue drug-resistance.Molecular oncology 05/2013; 7(5). DOI:10.1016/j.molonc.2013.04.009 · 5.94 Impact Factor
Article: New insights into TRAP1 pathway.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Protein 1 (TRAP1) is a mitochondrial heat shock protein involved in the protection from DNA damages and apoptosis induced by oxidants and several other stress conditions. Despite the well-characterized role in the regulation of mitochondrial integrity, through the interaction with cyclophilin D, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore regulator, several recent studies contributed to draw a more complex "picture" of the TRAP1 pathway: most of these updated functions arise from the identification of novel specific TRAP1 "client" proteins and from the recent discovery of multiple subcellular localizations/functions for this chaperone. This review briefly highlights some general features of TRAP1, and among others its role in cytoprotection, summarizing many different functions, which contribute to its protective role upon several stress inducers. Of note, particular emphasis is given to the recent findings on the regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum stress and protein quality control by TRAP1, as well as to its role in regulating calcium homeostasis throughout its client protein Sorcin. Starting from the above observations a preliminary "TRAP1 signature" is provided and a new intriguing and interesting field to explore is discussed. Several questions are still open given the complexity of such mechanisms. However, by translating these recent insights at the molecular and cellular levels into personalized individual anticancer treatments, designing novel strategies based on the simultaneous inhibition of multiple tumor-specific pathways, and contemplating subcellular-targeted approaches aimed at reverting drug resistance and improving antitumor activity the struggle to combat cancer become more successful and closer.American Journal of Cancer Research 01/2011; 2(2):235-48. · 3.97 Impact Factor