Article

Mitochondrial TRAP1 regulates the unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
Neurochemistry International (Impact Factor: 2.66). 02/2011; 58(8):880-7. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2011.02.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Stress in mitochondria or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) independently causes cell death. Recently, it was reported that ER stress causes mitochondrial dysfunction via p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA). However, little is known regarding the mitochondria molecules that mediate ER dysfunction. The present study revealed that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), which localizes in the mitochondria, is associated with the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the ER. TRAP1 knockdown activated the ER-resident caspase-4, which is activated by ER stress, to induce cell death in humans. However, TRAP1 knockdown cells did not show a significant increase in the level of cell death at least within 24 h after early phase of ER stress in comparison with that of the control cells. This finding could be attributed to a number of reasons. TRAP1 knockdown failed to activate caspase-9, which is activated by activated caspase-4. In addition, TRAP1 knockdown increased the basal level of GRP78/BiP expression, which protects cells, and decreased the basal level of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression, which induces cell death, even under ER stress. Thus, the present study revealed that mitochondria could be a potential regulator of the UPR in the ER through mitochondrial TRAP1.

0 0
 · 
0 Bookmarks
 · 
115 Views
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Natural flavonoids from plants have been demonstrated to possess promising chemopreventive activities against various diseases. 7-{4-[Bis-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-amino]-butoxy}-5-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2-phenyl-chromen-4-one (V8), a newly synthesized derivative of wogonin may have antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor potentials as wogonin. Based on the recent findings of V8, the anti-tumor activities and fundamental mechanisms by which V8 inhibits growth of hepatocellular carcinoma were further investigated in this study. After the treatment of V8, a significant inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation was observed in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 value of 23 μM using MTT assay. The exposure to V8 also resulted in apoptosis induction and an accumulation of ROS and Ca(2+). Meanwhile, a release of cytochrome c (Cyt-c), activation of BH-3 only proteins and Bax, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨ, as well as a suppression of Bcl-2, pro-caspase9 and pro-caspase3 expression were shown. Moreover, knocking down CHOP partly decreased the effect of V8-mediated apoptosis and activation of GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP modulated ER stress triggered by V8. In vivo, V8 inhibited the transplanted mice H22 liver carcinomas in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with wogonin, V8 exhibited stronger anti-proliferative effects both in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanism of activating PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 pathway by which V8 induces apoptosis was verified once again in vivo. The apoptosis induction via the mitochondrial pathway by modulating the ROS-mediated ER signaling pathway might serve to provide support for further studies of V8 as a possible anticancer drug in the clinical treatment of cancer.
    Archives of Toxicology 07/2013; · 5.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TRAP1 is a mitochondrial antiapoptotic protein up-regulated in several human malignancies. However, recent evidences suggest that TRAP1 is also localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it is involved in ER stress protection and protein quality control of tumor cells. Based on the mechanistic link between ER stress, protection from apoptosis and drug resistance, we questioned whether these novel roles of TRAP1 are relevant for its antiapoptotic function. Here, we show for the first time that: i) TRAP1 expression is increased in about 50% of human breast carcinomas (BC), and ii) the ER stress protecting activity of TRAP1 is conserved in human tumors since TRAP1 is co-upregulated with the ER stress marker, BiP/Grp78. Notably, ER-associated TRAP1 modulates mitochondrial apoptosis by exerting a quality control on 18 kDa Sorcin, a TRAP1 mitochondrial client protein involved in TRAP1 cytoprotective pathway. Furthermore, this TRAP1 function is relevant in favoring resistance to paclitaxel, a microtubule stabilizing/ER stress inducer agent widely used in BC therapy. Indeed, the transfection of a TRAP1 deletion mutant, whose localization is restricted to the ER, in shTRAP1 cells enhances the expression of mitochondrial Sorcin and protects from apoptosis induced by ER stress agents and paclitaxel. Furthermore, BC cells adapted to paclitaxel or ER stress inducers share common resistance mechanisms: both cell models exhibit cross-resistance to single agents and the inhibition of TRAP1 by siRNAs or gamitrinib, a mitochondria-directed HSP90 family inhibitor, in paclitaxel-resistant cells rescues the sensitivity to paclitaxel. These results support the hypothesis that ER-associated TRAP1 is responsible for an extramitochondrial control of apoptosis and, therefore, an interference of ER stress adaptation through TRAP1 inhibition outside of mitochondria may be considered a further compartment-specific molecular approach to rescue drug-resistance.
    Molecular oncology 05/2013; · 6.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Golgi apparatus is important for the transport of secretory cargo. Glycosylation is a major post-translational event. Recognition of O-glycans on proteins is necessary for glycoprotein trafficking. In this study, specific inhibition of O-glycosylation (Golgi stress) induced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident heat shock protein (HSP) 47 in NIH3T3 cells, although cell death was not induced by Golgi stress alone. When HSP47 expression was downregulated by siRNA, inhibition of O-glycosylation caused cell death. Three days after the induction of Golgi stress, the Golgi apparatus was disassembled, many vacuoles appeared near the Golgi apparatus and extended into the cytoplasm, the nuclei had split, and cell death assay-positive cells appeared. Six hours after the induction of Golgi stress, HSP47-knockdown cells exhibited increased cleavage of Golgi-resident caspase-2. Furthermore, activation of mitochondrial caspase-9 and ER-resident unfolded protein response (UPR)-related molecules and efflux of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm was observed in HSP47-knockdown cells 24 h after the induction of Golgi stress. These findings indicate that (i) the ER-resident chaperon HSP47 protected cells from Golgi stress, and (ii) Golgi stress-induced cell death caused by the inhibition of HSP47 expression resulted from caspase-2 activation in the Golgi apparatus, extending to the ER and mitochondria.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e69732. · 3.73 Impact Factor