Exosome-loaded dendritic cells elicit tumor-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in patients with glioma.
ABSTRACT In this study, we demonstrate that tumor-derived exosome-loaded dendritic cells can elicit a specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against autologous tumor cells in patients with malignant glioma. Exosomes were purified by ultrafiltration centrifugation and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. Exosomes had antigen-presenting molecules (MHC-I, HSP70), tumor antigen (MAGE-1) and adherent molecule (ICAM-1). After incubation with exosomes, the dendritic cells (DCs) could activate the T lymphocytes to become glioma-specialized CTL. The CTL had vigorous cytotoxicity to glioma cells as opposed to autologous lymphoblast cells. These data demonstrate that tumor exosome-loaded DC can be an effective tool in inducing glioma-specific CD8(+) CTLs able to kill autologous glioma cells in vitro. In conclusion, exosomes are a natural and new source of tumor-rejection antigens, opening up new avenues for immunization against glioma.
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ABSTRACT: We studied electron microscopy (EM) as an appropriate test system for the detection of polyomavirus in urine samples from bone marrow transplant patients. We evaluated direct EM, ultracentrifugation (UC) before EM, and solid-phase immuno-EM (SPIEM). The diagnostic accuracy of EM was studied by comparison with a real-time PCR assay on 531 clinical samples. The detection rate of EM was increased by UC and SPIEM. On 531 clinical urine samples, the diagnostic sensitivity of EM was 47% (70 of 149) with a specificity of 100%. We observed a linear relationship between viral genome concentration and the proportion of urine samples positive by EM, with a 50% probability for a positive EM result for urine samples with a polyomavirus concentration of 10(6) genome-equivalents (GE)/mL; the probability of a positive EM result was 0% for urine samples with <10(3) GE/mL and 100% for urine samples containing 10(9) GE/mL. UC/EM is rapid and highly specific for polyomavirus in urine. Unlike real-time PCR, EM has low sensitivity and cannot quantify the viral load.Clinical Chemistry 02/2004; 50(2):306-12. · 7.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe methods for the production, purification, and characterization of clinical grade (cGMP) exosomes derived from antigen presenting cells (APCs). Exosomes have been shown to have immunotherapeutic properties through their presentation of biologically relevant antigens [Nat. Med. 4 (1998) 594] and are being developed as an alternative to cellular therapies. Exosomes are 50-90-nm-diameter vesicles secreted from multivesicular bodies (MVBs) found in a variety of both hematopoietic and tumor cells. These particles contain antigen presenting molecules (MHC class I, MHC class II, and CD1), tetraspan molecules (CD9, CD63, CD81), adhesion molecules (CD11b and CD54), and costimulatory molecules (CD86); hence, providing them the necessary machinery required for generating a potent immune response [J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 20121; J. Cell. Sci. 113 (2000) 3365; J. Immunol. Methods 247 (2001) 163; J. Immunol. 166 (2001) 7309]. Exosomes from monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) were rapidly purified (e.g. 4-6 h of a 2-3 l culture) based on their unique size and density. Ultrafiltration of the clarified supernatant through a 500-kDa membrane and ultracentrifugation into a 30% sucrose/deuterium oxide (D2O) (98%) cushion (density 1.210 g/cm3) reduced the volume and protein concentration approximately 200- and 1000-fold, respectively. The percentage recovery of exosomes ranged from 40% to 50% based on the exosome MHC class II concentration of the starting clarified supernatant. This methodology was extended to a miniscale process with comparable results. Conversely, the classical differential centrifugation technique is a more lengthy and variable process resulting in exosomes being contaminated with media proteins and containing only 5-25% of the starting exosome MHC class II concentration; hence, making it difficult for their use in clinical development. Lastly, we developed the following quality control assays to standardize the exosome vaccine: quantity (concentration of MHC class II) and protein characterization (FACS). The combination of a rapid and reproducible purification method and quality control assays for exosomes has allowed for its evaluation as a cancer vaccine in clinical trials [Proc. Am. Soc. Oncol. 21 (2002) 11a].Journal of Immunological Methods 01/2003; 270(2):211-26. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CD34+ cells in human cord blood and marrow are known to give rise to dendritic cells (DC), as well as to other myeloid lineages. CD34+ cells are rare in adult blood, however, making it difficult to use CD34+ cells to ascertain if DC progenitors are present in the circulation and if blood can be a starting point to obtain large numbers of these immunostimulatory antigen-presenting cells for clinical studies. A systematic search for DC progenitors was therefore carried out in several contexts. In each case, we looked initially for the distinctive proliferating aggregates that were described previously in mice. In cord blood, it was only necessary to deplete erythroid progenitors, and add granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) together with tumor necrosis factor (TNF), to observe many aggregates and the production of typical DC progeny. In adult blood from patients receiving CSFs after chemotherapy for malignancy, GM-CSF and TNF likewise generated characteristic DCs from HLA-DR negative precursors. However, in adult blood from healthy donors, the above approaches only generated small DC aggregates which then seemed to become monocytes. When interleukin 4 was used to suppress monocyte development (Jansen, J. H., G.-J. H. M. Wientjens, W. E. Fibbe, R. Willemze, and H. C. Kluin-Nelemans. 1989. J. Exp. Med. 170:577.), the addition of GM-CSF led to the formation of large proliferating DC aggregates and within 5-7 d, many nonproliferating progeny, about 3-8 million cells per 40 ml of blood. The progeny had a characteristic morphology and surface composition (e.g., abundant HLA-DR and accessory molecules for cell-mediated immunity) and were potent stimulators of quiescent T cells. Therefore, large numbers of DCs can be mobilized by specific cytokines from progenitors in the blood stream. These relatively large numbers of DC progeny should facilitate future studies of their Fc epsilon RI and CD4 receptors, and their use in stimulating T cell-mediated resistance to viruses and tumors.Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/1994; 180(1):83-93. · 13.21 Impact Factor