A comparison of suprapubic and transurethral catheterization on postoperative urinary retention after vaginal prolapse repair: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT To compare the effect of suprapubic and transurethral catheterization on postvoid residual volumes (PRVs) after cystocele repair.
126 women who underwent pelvic organ prolapse surgery including cystocele repair were randomized to suprapubic or transurethral catheterization. At the third postoperative day, PRVs were measured. The number of women with PRV >150 ml, need for prolonged catheterization, recatheterization, length of hospital stay, frequency of urinary tract infections and complications were determined.
PRVs exceeded 150 ml in 13 out of 64 (20%) and 14 out of 62 (23%) women in the suprapubic and transurethral group, respectively (p = 0.76). In the suprapubic group a higher rate of urine leakage was noted (27 vs. 7%, p = 0.003). 10 women (16%) allocated to the suprapubic group switched to transurethral catheterization, because of problems with the suprapubic catheter. No protocol deviations were reported in the transurethral group. Of the women in both groups, 9% developed urinary tract infections (p = 0.93).
Suprapubic catheterization was comparable to transurethral catheterization in the prevention of postoperative voiding dysfunction after vaginal prolapse surgery, but it was associated with a higher rate of complications.
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ABSTRACT: Suprapubic catheterization is commonly used for postoperative bladder drainage after gynecologic procedures. However, recent studies have suggested an increased rate of complications compared with urethral catheterization. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing suprapubic catheterization and urethral catheterization in gynecologic populations. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and trial registries were searched from 1966 to March 2012 for eligible randomized controlled trials comparing postoperative suprapubic catheterization and urethral catheterization in gynecologic patients. We used these search terms: "catheter," "supra(-)pubic catheter," "urinary catheter," "gyn(a)ecological," "catheterization techniques gyn(a)ecological surgery," "transurethral catheter," and "bladder drainage." No language restrictions were applied. METHODS AND STUDY SELECTION: The primary outcome was urinary tract infection. Secondary outcomes were the need for recatheterization, duration of catheterization, catheter-related complications, and duration of hospital stay. Pooled effect size estimates were calculated using the random effects model from DerSimonian and Laird. In total, 12 eligible randomized controlled trials were included in the analysis (N=1,300 patients). Suprapubic catheterization was associated with a significant reduction in postoperative urinary tract infections (20% compared with 31%, pooled odds ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.185-0.512, P<.01) but an increased risk of complications (29% compared with 11%, pooled OR 4.14, 95% CI 1.327-12.9, P=.01). Complications were mostly related to catheter tube malfunction with no visceral injuries reported. No differences in the rate of recatheterization or hospital stay were demonstrated. Robust patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness data are lacking. Based on the best available evidence, no route for bladder drainage in gynecologic patients is clearly superior. The reduced rate of infective morbidity with suprapubic catheterization is offset by a higher rate of catheter-related complications and crucially does not translate into reduced hospital stay. As yet, there are insufficient data to determine which route is most appropriate for catheterization; therefore, cost and patient-specific factors should be paramount in the decision. Minimally invasive surgery may alter the requirement for prolonged postoperative catheterization.Obstetrics and Gynecology 09/2012; 120(3):678-87. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182657f0d · 4.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim was to determine the impact of pelvic organ prolapse surgery on bladder function. Every 4 years, and as part of the Fifth International Collaboration on Incontinence we reviewed the English-langauage scientific literature after searching PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library and Cochrane database of systematic reviews, published up to January 2012. Publications were classified as level 1 evidence (randomised controlled trials [RCT] or systematic reviews), level 2 (poor quality RCT, prospective cohort studies), level 3 (case series or retrospective studies and level 4 case reports. The highest level of evidence was utilised by the committee to make evidence-based recommendations based upon the Oxford grading system. Grade A recommendation usually depends on consistent level 1 evidence. Grade B recommendation usually depends on consistent level 2 and/or 3 studies, or "majority evidence" from RCTs. Grade C recommendation usually depends on level 4 studies or "majority evidence" from level 2/3 studies or Delphi processed expert opinion. Grade D "no recommendation possible" would be used where the evidence is inadequate or conflicting and when expert opinion is delivered without a formal analytical process, such as by Delphi. Continent women undergoing anterior compartment prolapse surgery have a lower rate of de novo stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after anterior repair than armed mesh procedures (grade A). Data are conflicting on whether colposuspension should be performed prophylactically in continent women undergoing sacral colpopexy (grade C). No clear conclusion can be made regarding the management of continent women undergoing prolapse surgery without occult SUI. In continent women undergoing POP surgery with occult SUI the addition of continence surgery reduces the rate of postoperative SUI (grade A). In women with prolapse and SUI symptoms prolapse procedures alone (transobturator mesh and anterior repair) are associated with low success rates for SUI. Concomitant continence procedures reduce the risk of postoperative SUI (grade B). Preoperative bladder overactivity may resolve in 40 % undergoing POP surgery and de novo bladder overactivity occurs in 12 %. No valid conclusions regarding voiding dysfunction following POP surgery can be drawn from the available data. SUI and occult stress urinary incontinence should be treated at the time of prolapse surgery.International Urogynecology Journal 11/2013; 24(11):1843-52. DOI:10.1007/s00192-013-2175-y · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether nitrofurantoin prophylaxis prevents postoperative urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients receiving transurethral catheterization after pelvic reconstructive surgery. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery were randomized to 100 mg nitrofurantoin or placebo once daily during catheterization if they were: 1) discharged with a transurethral Foley or performing intermittent self-catheterization; or 2) hospitalized overnight with a transurethral Foley. Our primary outcome was treatment for clinically suspected or culture-proven UTI within 3 weeks of surgery. Statistical analysis was performed by χ and logistic regression. Assuming 80% power at a P value of .05, 156 participants were needed to demonstrate a two-thirds reduction in UTI. Of 159 participants, 81 (51%) received nitrofurantoin and 78 (49%) received placebo. There were no significant differences in baseline demographics, intraoperative characteristics, duration and type of catheterization, or postoperative hospitalization, except a lower rate of hysterectomy in the nitrofurantoin group. Nitrofurantoin prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of UTI treatment within 3 weeks of surgery (22% UTI with nitrofurantoin compared with 13% UTI with placebo, relative risk 1.73, 95% confidence interval 0.85-3.52, P=.12). Urinary tract infection treatment was higher in premenopausal women, lower in diabetics, and increased with longer duration of catheterization. In logistic regression adjusting for menopause, diabetes, preoperative postvoid residual volume, creatinine clearance, hysterectomy, and duration of catheterization, there was still no difference in UTI with nitrofurantoin as compared with placebo. Prophylaxis with daily nitrofurantoin during catheterization does not reduce the risk of postoperative UTI in patients receiving short-term transurethral catheterization after pelvic reconstructive surgery. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01450800. : I.Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2014; 123(1):96-103. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000024 · 4.37 Impact Factor