iMedic: a two-handed immersive medical environment for distributed interactive consultation.
We describe a two-handed immersive and distributed 3D medical system that enables intuitive interaction with multimedia objects and space. The system is applicable to a number of virtual reality and tele-consulting scenarios. Various features were implemented, including measurement tools, interactive segmentation, non-orthogonal planar views, and 3D markup. User studies demonstrated the system's effectiveness in fundamental 3D tasks, showing that iMedic's two-handed interface enables placement and construction of 3D objects 4.5-4.7 times as fast as a mouse interface and 1.3-1.7 times as fast as a one-handed wand interface. In addition, avatar-to-avatar collaboration (two iMedic users in a shared space-one subject and one mentor) was shown to be more effective than face-to-face collaboration (one iMedic user/subject and one live mentor) for three tasks.
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes a two-handed interface that enables intuitive interaction with 3D multimedia environments. Two user studies demonstrated the effectiveness of the two-handed interface in fundamental 3D object manipulation and viewpoint manipulation tasks. Trained participants docked and constructed 3D objects 4.5–4.7 times as fast as a standard mouse interface and 1.3–2.5 times as fast as a standard one-handed wand interface. 19 of 20 participants preferred the two-handed interface over the mouse and wand interfaces. 16 participants felt very comfortable with the two-handed interface and 4 felt comfortable. No statistically significant differences in performance were found between monoscopic and stereoscopic displays although 17 of 20 participants preferred the stereoscopic display over the monoscopic display.
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