Healthy Lifestyle on the Risk of Breast Cancer

Centro de Investigación en Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 02/2011; 20(5):912-22. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-1036
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Many studies have analyzed the effect of behavioral risk factors such as common lifestyle patterns on the risk of disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a healthy lifestyle index on the risk of breast cancer.
A population-based case-control study was conducted in Mexico from 2004 to 2007. One thousand incident cases and 1,074 controls, matched to cases by 5-year age category, region, and health institution, participated in the study. A healthy lifestyle index was developed by means of principal components by using dietary pattern, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and tobacco smoking. A conditional logistic regression model was used to assess this association.
The healthy lifestyle index was defined as the combined effect of moderate and/or vigorous-intensity physical activity, low consumption of fat, processed foods, refined cereals, complex sugars, and the avoidance of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Results showed a protective effect on both pre- (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.29-0.84) and postmenopausal women (OR = O.20, 95% CI: 0.11-0.37) when highest versus lowest index quintiles were compared.
Healthy lifestyle was associated with a reduction in the odds of having breast cancer. Primary prevention of this disease should be promoted in an integrated manner. Effective strategies need to be identified to engage women in healthy lifestyles.
This study is the first to assess a healthy lifestyle index in relation to the risk of breast cancer.

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    • "While there are an increasing number of studies on combined lifestyle factors and disease outcomes [14-18], few studies have specifically investigated combined healthy lifestyle indices and breast cancer risk [19,31]. Furthermore, to our knowledge, there are no other studies which have compared the risks associated with a healthy lifestyle index and breast cancer between ethnic groups experiencing different exposure patterns and rates of breast cancer incidence. "
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    ABSTRACT: The reasons for the increasing breast cancer incidence in indigenous Maori compared to non-Maori New Zealand women are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the association of an index of combined healthy lifestyle behaviours with the risk of breast cancer in Maori and non-Maori women. A population-based case--control study was conducted, including breast cancer cases registered in New Zealand from 2005--2007. Controls were matched by ethnicity and 5-year age bands. A healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) was generated for 1093 cases and 2118 controls, based on public health and cancer prevention recommendations. The HLIS was constructed from eleven factors (limiting red meat, cream, and cheese; consuming more white meat, fish, fruit and vegetables; lower alcohol consumption; not smoking; higher exercise levels; lower body mass index; and longer cumulative duration of breastfeeding). Equal weight was given to each factor. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between breast cancer and the HLIS for each ethnic group stratified by menopausal status. Among Maori, the mean HLIS was 5.00 (range 1--9); among non-Maori the mean was 5.43 (range 1.5-10.5). There was little evidence of an association between the HLIS and breast cancer for non-Maori women. Among postmenopausal Maori, those in the top HLIS tertile had a significantly lower odds of breast cancer (Odds Ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.94) compared to those in the bottom tertile. These findings suggest that healthy lifestyle recommendations could be important for reducing breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Maori women.
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    • "A recent case control study demonstrated that healthy lifestyle significantly reduces the odds of having breast cancer in both pre and post-menopausal women. Healthy lifestyle index was considered as the combined effect of moderate and/or vigorous-intensity physical activity, low consumption of fat, processed foods, refined cereals, complex sugars, and the avoidance of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption [88]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In England, guidance from National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) states women with a family history of breast cancer presenting to primary care should be reassured or referred.We reviewed the evidence for interventions that might be applied in primary care and conducted an audit of whether low risk women are correctly advised and flagged. We conducted a literature review to identify modifiable risk factors. We extracted routinely collected data from the computerised medical record systems of 6 general practices (population approximately 30,000); of the variables identified in the guidance. We implemented a quality improvement (QI) intervention called audit-based education (ABE) comparing participant practices with guidelines and each other before and after; we report odds ratios (OR) of any change in data recording. The review revealed evidence for advising on: diet, weight control, physical exercise, and alcohol. The proportion of patients with recordings of family history of: disease, neoplasms, and breast cancer were: 39.3%, 5.1% and 1.3% respectively. There was no significant change in the recording of family history of disease or cancer; OR 1.02 (95% CI 0.98-1.06); and 1.08 (95% CI 0.99-1.17) respectively. Recording of alcohol consumption and smoking both increased significantly; OR 1.36 (95% CI 1.30-1.43); and 1.42 (95% CI 1.27-1.60) respectively. Recording lifestyle advice fell; OR 0.84 (95% CI 0.81-0.88). The study informs about current data recording and willingness to engage in ABE. Recording of risk factors improved after the intervention. Further QI is needed to achieve adherence to current guidance.
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling to breast cancer has been studied for more than two decades. In an early phase TGF-β may act as a tumour suppressor, while later, when cells have become resistant to its anti-mitogenic effects, the role of TGF-β switches towards malignant conversion and progression. TGF-β stimulates cell invasion and modifies the microenvironment to the advantage of cancer cells. Studies have shown that TGF-β promotes bone and lung metastasis via different mechanisms. The therapeutic strategies to target the TGF-β pathway in breast cancer are becoming increasingly clear. This review will focus on the role TGF-β in breast cancer invasion and metastasis.
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