Healthy Lifestyle on the Risk of Breast Cancer
ABSTRACT Many studies have analyzed the effect of behavioral risk factors such as common lifestyle patterns on the risk of disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a healthy lifestyle index on the risk of breast cancer.
A population-based case-control study was conducted in Mexico from 2004 to 2007. One thousand incident cases and 1,074 controls, matched to cases by 5-year age category, region, and health institution, participated in the study. A healthy lifestyle index was developed by means of principal components by using dietary pattern, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and tobacco smoking. A conditional logistic regression model was used to assess this association.
The healthy lifestyle index was defined as the combined effect of moderate and/or vigorous-intensity physical activity, low consumption of fat, processed foods, refined cereals, complex sugars, and the avoidance of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Results showed a protective effect on both pre- (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.29-0.84) and postmenopausal women (OR = O.20, 95% CI: 0.11-0.37) when highest versus lowest index quintiles were compared.
Healthy lifestyle was associated with a reduction in the odds of having breast cancer. Primary prevention of this disease should be promoted in an integrated manner. Effective strategies need to be identified to engage women in healthy lifestyles.
This study is the first to assess a healthy lifestyle index in relation to the risk of breast cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer primary prevention is a high research priority due to the high psychological and economic costs. The disease is a multistep process and several risk factors have been recognized. Over the past three decades numerous studies have investigated the association of lifestyle with breast cancer, showing independent effects of various factors. We report here a summary of the present state of knowledge on the role of lifestyle patterns, such as physical activity, diet, smoking, hormone therapy, and experience of psychological stress in the modulation of breast cancer in women, and discuss commonly accepted biological mechanisms hypothesized as responsible for the associations. The findings indicate that regular physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity is probably linked with the decreased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal females and suggestive for a decrease of the risk in premenopausal women. In contrast, the consumption of high-fat diet, alcohol intake, and use of combined estrogen and synthetic progestagen hormonal therapy may increase the risk. Epidemiological findings dealing with a role of smoking and experience of psychological stress are conflicting.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2015; 15(24):10543-10555. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.24.10543 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. We examined the association between individual and clustered lifestyle behaviors in middle age and later in cognitive functioning. Methods. Middle-aged participants (n = 2430) in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydant study self-reported their low physical activity, sedentary behavior, alcohol use, smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and low fish consumption. We assessed cognition 13 years later via 6 neuropsychological tests. After standardization, we summed the scores for a composite cognitive measure. We estimated executive functioning and verbal memory scores using principal component analysis. We estimated the mean differences (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) in cognitive performance by the number of unhealthy behaviors using analysis of covariance. We identified latent unhealthy behavior factor via structural equation modeling. Results. Global cognitive function and verbal memory were linearly, negatively associated with the number of unhealthy behaviors: adjusted mean differences = -0.36 (95% CI = -0.69, -0.03) and -0.46 (95% CI = -0.80, -0.11), respectively, per unit increase in the number of unhealthy behaviors. The latent unhealthy behavior factor with low fruit and vegetable consumption and low physical activity as main contributors was associated with reduced verbal memory (RMSEA = 0.02; CFI = 0.96; P = .004). No association was found with executive functioning. Conclusions. Comprehensive public health strategies promoting healthy lifestyles might help deter cognitive aging. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 11, 2014: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302121).American Journal of Public Health 09/2014; 104(11):e1-e8. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302121 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The reasons for the increasing breast cancer incidence in indigenous Maori compared to non-Maori New Zealand women are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the association of an index of combined healthy lifestyle behaviours with the risk of breast cancer in Maori and non-Maori women. A population-based case--control study was conducted, including breast cancer cases registered in New Zealand from 2005--2007. Controls were matched by ethnicity and 5-year age bands. A healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) was generated for 1093 cases and 2118 controls, based on public health and cancer prevention recommendations. The HLIS was constructed from eleven factors (limiting red meat, cream, and cheese; consuming more white meat, fish, fruit and vegetables; lower alcohol consumption; not smoking; higher exercise levels; lower body mass index; and longer cumulative duration of breastfeeding). Equal weight was given to each factor. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between breast cancer and the HLIS for each ethnic group stratified by menopausal status. Among Maori, the mean HLIS was 5.00 (range 1--9); among non-Maori the mean was 5.43 (range 1.5-10.5). There was little evidence of an association between the HLIS and breast cancer for non-Maori women. Among postmenopausal Maori, those in the top HLIS tertile had a significantly lower odds of breast cancer (Odds Ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.94) compared to those in the bottom tertile. These findings suggest that healthy lifestyle recommendations could be important for reducing breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Maori women.BMC Cancer 01/2014; 14(1):12. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-12 · 3.32 Impact Factor