Carbon monoxide levels among patrons of hookah cafes.
ABSTRACT Individuals who use a hookah (water pipe) as a method of tobacco smoking are exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide (CO). Assessing hookah use in one of the venues of its use (hookah bars) will aid the understanding of the toxins and exposure for the user. In Florida, smoking is prohibited in public places under the Florida Clean Indoor Act but permitted in establishments that have less than 10% gross revenue from food.
To assess the CO level of hookah cafe patrons, using traditional bar patrons as a comparison.
After IRB approval, a nighttime field study of patrons (aged >18 years) exiting hookah cafes and traditional bars in 2009 was conducted, using sidewalk locations immediately outside these establishments in a campus community. As hookah cafes and bars are typically entered and exited in groups, every other group of people exiting the establishment was approached. For comparison purposes, the sample collected was similar in number, 173 hookah cafe and 198 traditional bar participants.
Results from analysis conducted in 2010 indicate that patrons of hookah cafes had significantly higher CO levels (mean=30.8 parts per million [ppm]) compared to patrons of traditional bars (mean=8.9 ppm). Respondents who indicate no cigarette use in the past month but had visited a hookah cafe still demonstrated significantly higher CO values (mean=28.5 ppm) compared to those exiting traditional bars (mean=8.0 ppm). Current cigarette smokers also produced significantly more CO if exiting a hookah cafe (mean=34.7 ppm) compared to a traditional bar (mean=13.3 ppm).
CO levels are higher for patrons of hookah cafes, for both current and non-cigarette smokers. Although users report that they perceive hookah to be less harmful than cigarettes, the greater CO exposure for hookah users that was observed in this study is not consistent with that perception.
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ABSTRACT: Water pipe (also known as "hookah") smoking is increasing around the world, including the United States, where water pipe bars have sprung up rapidly around college campuses. Users are exposed to several toxicants, including carbon monoxide (CO). We evaluated change in exhaled CO and estimated carboxyhemoglobin levels among water pipe bar patrons in Tampa, FL. Exhaled breath samples were obtained immediately before entering and after leaving 6 water pipe bars in Tampa, FL to measure CO boost and factors affecting CO change. Demographics, cigarette use status, and characteristics of water pipe use during the bar visit also were assessed. Among the sample of 166 participants, mean CO increased from 6.5 parts per million (p.p.m.) to 58.2 p.p.m. (a 795% relative boost; p < .001). CO change was higher for patrons who were dual (water pipe plus cigarette) smokers compared with water pipe-only smokers, and significant factors of CO change were frequency of water pipe use, number of charcoals, number of tobacco bowls, and time spent in the bar (all p-values < .05). U.S. water pipe bar patrons are exposed to considerable amounts of CO, which could put them at risk of acute illness and chronic heart and lung diseases. Environmental and policy controls are needed to curb this increasingly popular tobacco use method in the United States.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 03/2014; 16(7). DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntu041 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are numerous studies demonstrating a direct association between the ingestion of soybean and low cancer incidence. This fact has been related to the presence of Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) and lectin in soybean. The simultaneous and fast determination of BBI and lectin in soybean is proposed, for the first time, in this work. Two different strategies were designed for the extraction of BBI and lectin: extraction of soybean proteins using a Tris-HCl buffer followed by isolation of BBI and lectin by the isoelectric precipitation of other soybean proteins (method I) or by the direct extraction of BBI and lectin using an acetate buffer (method II). The effect of the previous soybean defating on the extraction of BBI and lectin was also studied. Moreover, the possibility of using a high-intensity focalized ultrasonic probe for accelerating the extraction was explored and an optimization of the extraction time and ultrasound amplitude was performed. The extracts obtained were analysed by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS for the correct identification of BBI and lectin in soybean. Moreover, a fast chromatographic methodology using a perfusion column and UV detection was optimized for the rapid determination of BBI and lectin in soybean. After evaluating its analytical characteristics (linearity, precision, and recovery), the method was applied to the quantitation of BBI and lectin in different soybean varieties.Journal of Chromatography A 09/2010; 1217(45):7138-43. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2010.09.026 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI the Web of Science. Articles in any language that assessed the association between water pipe smoking and any health outcome. Included studies were cohort, case-control and cross-sectional. Studies were excluded if they looked at physiological outcomes, non-tobacco pipe use, or didn't differentiate between this and other smoking habits. Data were abstracted independently by two reviewers using a standardised screening guide and GRADE used to evaluate study quality. The I(2) statistic was used to measure heterogeneity. Odds ratios for the effect of pipe smoking on lung, bladder, oesophageal and nasopharyngeal cancer, oral dysplasia, pregnancy outcomes, periodontal disease, hepatitis, respiratory illness and infertility were extracted. Twenty-three studies were included. Based on the available evidence, waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly associated with lung cancer, respiratory illness, low birth-weight and periodontal disease. It was not significantly associated with bladder, nasopharyngeal and oesophageal cancers, neither with oral dysplasia or infertility, but the confidence Intervals (CIs) did not exclude important associations. Smoking a waterpipe in groups was not significantly associated with hepatitis C infection. The overall quality of evidence varied from very low to low. The evidence from very low to low quality studies is that waterpipe tobacco smoking is possibly associated with a number of deleterious health outcomes including lung cancer, respiratory illness, low birth-weight and periodontal disease.Evidence-based dentistry 01/2011; 12(2):44-5. DOI:10.1038/sj.ebd.6400790