Carbon monoxide levels among patrons of hookah cafes.
ABSTRACT Individuals who use a hookah (water pipe) as a method of tobacco smoking are exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide (CO). Assessing hookah use in one of the venues of its use (hookah bars) will aid the understanding of the toxins and exposure for the user. In Florida, smoking is prohibited in public places under the Florida Clean Indoor Act but permitted in establishments that have less than 10% gross revenue from food.
To assess the CO level of hookah cafe patrons, using traditional bar patrons as a comparison.
After IRB approval, a nighttime field study of patrons (aged >18 years) exiting hookah cafes and traditional bars in 2009 was conducted, using sidewalk locations immediately outside these establishments in a campus community. As hookah cafes and bars are typically entered and exited in groups, every other group of people exiting the establishment was approached. For comparison purposes, the sample collected was similar in number, 173 hookah cafe and 198 traditional bar participants.
Results from analysis conducted in 2010 indicate that patrons of hookah cafes had significantly higher CO levels (mean=30.8 parts per million [ppm]) compared to patrons of traditional bars (mean=8.9 ppm). Respondents who indicate no cigarette use in the past month but had visited a hookah cafe still demonstrated significantly higher CO values (mean=28.5 ppm) compared to those exiting traditional bars (mean=8.0 ppm). Current cigarette smokers also produced significantly more CO if exiting a hookah cafe (mean=34.7 ppm) compared to a traditional bar (mean=13.3 ppm).
CO levels are higher for patrons of hookah cafes, for both current and non-cigarette smokers. Although users report that they perceive hookah to be less harmful than cigarettes, the greater CO exposure for hookah users that was observed in this study is not consistent with that perception.
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ABSTRACT: Hookah use has gained recent popularity among U.S. youth. The current study describes the characteristics and correlates associated with hookah use in late adolescent and young adult US Air Force (USAF) recruits. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional questionnaire of USAF personnel in Technical Training School at Joint Base San Antonio (N=10,997). Response rate was 78%. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between hookah use, demographic variables, other tobacco and nicotine containing product (TNCP) use, and the social environment. The prevalence of ever hookah use was 28%; at least monthly hookah use was 10%. Increased hookah use was positively associated with Hispanic ethnicity (OR [odds ratio] 1.52; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.85), cigarette smoking (OR 4.05; CI: 3.41, 4.82) and smokeless tobacco use (OR 1.35; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.71). Hookah use was negatively associated with age (OR 0.84; 95% 0.71 to 1.00), living as married (OR 0.54; 95% CI: 0.40-0.72), African American (OR 0.53; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.69) and ≥4-year degree (OR 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82). Hookah use was highest among recruits who "many or almost all" of their friends smoked cigarettes (OR 2.43; 95% CI: 1.80, 3.30) and for those who reported willingness to try a tobacco product that claims to be safer than cigarettes (OR 3.16; 95% CI: 2.64, 3.77). Hookah use among military recruits is similar to the civilian population. A willingness to try TNCPs claiming to be safer than cigarettes may influence hookah use. Public health campaigns disseminating accurate information about hookah health risks may be needed to reduce hookah use among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Addictive behaviors 03/2015; 47:5-10. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.03.012 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although hookah smoking is becoming a source of tobacco use among college students in the United States, little is known of the students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding hookah use. This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining the prevalence of hookah use and describing social and behavioral factors associated with hookah smoking among university students in a large urban university in Florida. A convenience sample of 478 undergraduate and graduate students was recruited. Lifetime use and current use was evaluated. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess the independent association between study covariates and hookah use. Prevalence among students of having ever used hookah during their lifetime was 54.4%. Hookah use within the past 30 days was 16.3%. Hookah use was significantly associated with cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR], 4.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.13-9.60) and hookah ownership (OR, 10.67; 95% CI, 4.83-23.66) but not with alcohol use (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 0.74-4.04). Findings also suggest hookah is perceived as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking. Almost 30% of those who never smoked hookah reported they would consider smoking hookah in the future. Hookah smoking is popular among college students. Misperceptions associated with hookah use indicate a starting point for developing health behavior change interventions. Future studies should investigate social and behavioral determinants of hookah use and determine the incidence of hookah use among college and high school students. Tobacco control activities should include prevention of hookah tobacco use in university settings.Preventing chronic disease 12/2014; 11:E214. DOI:10.5888/pcd11.140099 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is widely held that waterpipe smoking (WPS) is not associated with health hazards. However, several studies have documented the uptake of several toxicants and carcinogens during WPS that is strongly associated with harmful health effects. This paper reviews the literature on the health effects of WPS. Three databases-PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE-were searched until August 2014 for the acute and long-term health effects of WPS using the terms 'waterpipe' and its synonyms (hookah, shisha, goza, narghileh, arghileh and hubble-bubble) in various spellings. We included original clinical studies, case reports and systematic reviews and focused on clinical human studies. ∼10% of the identified studies met the selection criteria. Data were abstracted by all three authors and summarised into tables. Abstracted data included study type, results and methodological limitations and were analysed jointly by all three authors. WPS acutely leads to increased heart rate, blood pressure, impaired pulmonary function and carbon monoxide intoxication. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and coronary artery disease are serious complications of long-term use. Lung, gastric and oesophageal cancer are associated with WPS as well as periodontal disease, obstetrical complications, osteoporosis and mental health problems. Contrary to the widely held misconception, WPS is associated with a variety of adverse short-term and long-term health effects that should reinforce the need for stronger regulation. In addition, this review highlights the limitations of the published work, which is mostly cross-sectional or retrospective. Prospective studies should be undertaken to assess the full spectrum of health effects of WPS, particularly in view of its growing popularity and attractiveness to youth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.Tobacco Control 02/2015; 24(Supplement 1). DOI:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051908 · 5.15 Impact Factor