Hypoxic preconditioning induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injuries and its cPKCγ-mediated molecular mechanism.
ABSTRACT As of yet, pharmacological treatments of stroke are only met with mediocre results, which are either ineffective or confounded by adverse effects, thus calling for a better understanding of endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. Previously, we have demonstrated that the translocated activation of conventional protein kinase Cγ (cPKCγ) is involved in the development of cerebral hypoxic preconditioning (HPC), one of the most profound neuroprotective strategies. This study was designed to substantiate the role of cPKCγ and its signaling molecules in HPC-induced neuroprotection against subsequent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced permanent cerebral ischemic injuries. The effects of HPC and cPKCγ on cerebral ischemic injuries were studied by observing the changes in neurological deficits, infarct volume and neural cell apoptosis. cPKCγ membrane translocation (activation) and its interacting protein synapsin in the ischemic brain were examined by Western blot analysis. Proteomic approaches were employed to identify the cPKCγ-interacting proteins. We found that HPC could markedly attenuate MCAO-induced brain injuries and the decrease of cPKCγ membrane translocation, but cPKCγ inhibitor Go6983 could block HPC-induced neuroprotection. Among the 41 identified cPKCγ-interacting proteins, 17 up- and 6 down-regulated proteins were observed in cytosol or particulate fraction during HPC. In addition, the up-regulated synapsin could reciprocally co-precipitate with cPKCγ both in cytosol and particulate fractions, and Go6983 abolished HPC-induced inhibition on synapsin dephosphorylation in ischemic core and peri-infarct region (penumbra). This study is the first to report multiple cPKCγ-interacting proteins in HPC mouse brain and suggested that cPKCγ signaling molecules, especially the cPKCγ-synapsin pathway, might be responsible for HPC-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injuries of mice.
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ABSTRACT: Polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and resveratrol have received a great deal of attention because they may contribute to the purported neuroprotective action of the regular consumption of green tea and red wine. Many studies, including those published by our group, suggest that this protective action includes their abilities to prevent the neurotoxic effects of beta-amyloid, a protein whose accumulation likely plays a pivotal role in Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, the scavenging activities of polyphenols on reactive oxygen species and their inhibitory action of cyclooxygenase likely explain, at least in part, their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Besides these well-documented properties, the modulatory action of these polyphenols on intracellular signaling pathways related to cell death/survival (e.g., protein kinase C, PKC) has yet to be investigated in detail. Using rat hippocampal neuronal cells, we aimed to investigate here the effects of EGCG and resveratrol on cell death induced by GF 109203X, a selective inhibitor of PKC. The MTT/resazurin and spectrin assays indicated that EGCG and resveratrol protected against GF 109203X-induced cell death and cytoskeleton degeneration, with a maximal effect at 1 and 3 μM, respectively. Moreover, immunofluorescence data revealed that cells treated with these polyphenols increased PKC gamma (γ) activation and promoted neuronal interconnections. Finally, we found that the protective effects of both polyphenols on the cytoskeleton and synaptic plasticity were mediated by the PKCγ subunit. Taken together, the results suggest that PKC, and more specifically its γ subunit, plays a critical role in the protective action of EGCG and resveratrol on neuronal integrity.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 12/2013; 7:281. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2013.00281 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The understanding of molecular mechanism underlying ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal death and neurological dysfunction may provide therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. The up-regulated miRNA-30a among our previous identified 19 MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in mouse brain after 6 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) could negatively regulate Beclin 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) resulting in decreased autophagic activity in tumor cells and cardiomyocytes, but its role in ischemic stroke is unclear. In this study, the effects of miRNA-30a on ischemic injury in N2A cells and cultured cortical neurons after oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), and mouse brain with MCAO-induced ischemic stroke were evaluated. The results showed that miRNA-30a expression levels were up regulated in the brain of mice after 6 h MCAO without reperfusion, but significantly down regulated in the peri-infarct region of mice with 1 h MCAO/24 h reperfusion and in N2A cells after 1 h OGD/6-48 h reoxygenation. Both the conversion ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I and Beclin 1 protein level increased in N2A cells and cultured cortical neurons following 1 h OGD/24 h reoxygenation. The down-regulated miRNA-30a could attenuate 1 h OGD/24 h reoxygenation-induced ischemic injury in N2A cells and cultured cortical neurons through enhancing Beclin 1-mediated autophagy, as miRNA-30a recognized the 3'-untranslated region of beclin 1 mRNA to negatively regulate Beclin 1-protein level via promoting beclin 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation, and Beclin 1 siRNA abolished anti-miR-30a-induced neuroprotection in 1 h OGD/24 h reoxygenation treated N2A cells. In addition, anti-miR-30a attenuated the neural cell loss and improved behavioral outcome of mice with ischemic stroke. These results suggested that down-regulation of miRNA-30a alleviates ischemic injury through enhancing beclin 1-mediated autophagy, providing a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.Neurochemical Research 04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11064-014-1310-6 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a powerful endogenous mechanism whereby a sublethal ischemic stimulus confers a protective benefit against a subsequent severe ischemic insult. RIC has significant potential clinical implications for the prevention of delayed ischemic neurological deficit after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Although RIC has been extensively investigated in animal models, it has not been fully evaluated in humans. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and safety of RIC for aSAH in a phase I clinical trial. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized for treatment of an aSAH who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were approached for consent. Enrolled patients received up to 4 RIC sessions on nonconsecutive days. Primary end points were the development of a symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, bruising, or injury to the limb and request to stop by the patient or surrogate. The secondary end points were the development of new neurological deficits or cerebral infarct, demonstrated by brain imaging after enrollment, and neurological deficit and condition at follow-up. RESULTS: Twenty patients were enrolled and underwent 76 RIC sessions, 75 of which were completed successfully. One session was discontinued when the patient became confused. No patient developed a deep venous thrombosis or injury to the preconditioned limb. No patient developed delayed ischemic neurological deficit during enrollment. At follow-up, median modified Rankin Scale score was 1 and Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 5. CONCLUSION: The RIC procedure was well tolerated and did not cause any injury. RIC for aSAH warrants investigation in a subsequent pivotal clinical trial.Neurosurgery 07/2014; 75(5). DOI:10.1227/NEU.0000000000000514 · 3.03 Impact Factor