Epidemiology of pre-eclampsia and the other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology (Impact Factor: 1.87). 02/2011; 25(4):391-403. DOI: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2011.01.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy include chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed pre-eclampsia. Pre-eclampsia complicates about 3% of pregnancies, and all hypertensive disorders affect about five to 10% of pregnancies. Secular increases in chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia have occurred as a result of changes in maternal characteristics (such as maternal age and pre-pregnancy weight), whereas declines in eclampsia have followed widespread antenatal care and use of prophylactic treatments (such as magnesium sulphate). Determinants of pre-eclampsia rates include a bewildering array of risk and protective factors, including familial factors, sperm exposure, maternal smoking, pre-existing medical conditions (such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and anti-phospholipid syndrome), and miscellaneous ones such as plurality, older maternal age and obesity. Hypertensive disorders are associated with higher rates of maternal, fetal and infant mortality, and severe morbidity, especially in cases of severe pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome.

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    ABSTRACT: Maternal placental syndromes (MPS) occur as a consequence of abnormal placental vessel formation and refer to hypertensive pregnancy disorders and related placental abnormalities. The aim of this study is to investigate early alterations in left ventricular function in patients with history of MPS using tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging. We enrolled 122 females who were 6 months after delivery. Group 1 included 72 patients who experienced MPS. Group 2 included 50 women with normal pregnancy as control. There was no significant difference between both groups with regard to ejection fraction, deceleration time, isovolumetric relaxation time, or E/A ratio. Deterioration of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function was evident in the MPS group, by TDI parameters (significantly lower values of Sm 7.5 ± 1.2 vs. 9.1 ± 1.3, p < 0.001; Em 7.0 ± 0.8 vs. 10.0 ± 1.4, p = 0.02; and Em-to-Am ratio 0.84 ± 0.14 vs. 1.2 ± 0.18, p < 0.001). Systolic strain, peak systolic strain rate, and early and late diastolic strain rates were also significantly lower in patients who had MPS than in the control group (-18.7 ± 2.6 vs. -20.8 ± 1.5, p < 0.001; -0.92 ± 0.14 vs. -1.01 ± 0.23, p < 0.001; 1.05 ± 0.11 vs. 1.29 ± 0.24, p < 0.001; 1.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4, p < 0.001, respectively) and in patients who had severe pre-eclampia than mild pre-eclampsia. Pre-eclamptic women who had preterm delivery showed significantly higher left diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction occur in patients with history of MPS. These abnormalities are evident on tissue Doppler and strain imaging even in the absence of changes in ejection fraction or standard diastolic parameters.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Patient data from Maison de Naissance (MN), a rural maternity clinic in Haiti, were analyzed to determine the prevalence of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders and the extent to which maternal weight and age are associated with these disorders in the MN population. Methods: A case-control study design was used with cases defined as pregnant women who were presented at MN with pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders (pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or eclampsia) and controls defined as those women who delivered babies at MN and were not diagnosed with a pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder. The final cohort size was 622 controls and 67 cases. Odds ratios were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The incidence of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia was 7.0%. Older maternal age at delivery (OR = 3.18; 95%CI: 1.31, 7.76) and higher maternal weight (OR = 3.24; 95%CI: 1.76, 5.98) measured during prenatal care were significantly associated with pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders. Prenatal care was not significantly associated with reduced risk of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Conclusions: The prevalence of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders was high relative to rates in other developing countries. More is required to reduce the rate of pre-eclampsia perhaps by targeting older and women with high weight for preconception and more intensive prenatal care.
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a men's disease for decades, however it is more common in women than in men. It is generally assumed in medicine that the effects of the major risk factors (RF) on CVD outcomes are the same in women as in men. Recent evidence has emerged that recognizes new, potentially independent, CVD RF exclusive to women. In particular, common disorders of pregnancy, such as gestational hypertension and diabetes, as well as frequently occurring endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age (e.g. polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and early menopause) are associated with accelerated development of CVD and impaired CVD-free survival.
    Atherosclerosis 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.01.027 · 3.71 Impact Factor


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Jun 2, 2014