Gallstones associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic syndrome.
ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and metabolic syndrome in patients with symptomatic gallstones undergoing laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy.
A study of 95 patients was performed. Simultaneous liver biopsies were taken during cholecystectomy between 2006 and 2007. There were no postoperative complications. Patients with significant alcohol intake, hepatitis B or C (virus-positive), autoimmune diseases, and Wilson's disease were excluded. Demographics, liver function tests, lipid profile, and ultrasound findings of patients with and without non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were compared.
A total of 95 patients completed the study. The mean age was 52.15 years, and 29 patients were male and 66 female. Fifty-two patients (55%) had biopsies compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Fifty-five percent of patients with gallbladder stones had associated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Awareness of this association may result in an earlier diagnosis. The high prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in patients with gallbladder stone may justify routine liver biopsy during cholecystectomy to establish the diagnosis and stage and possibly direct therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Gallstone disease (GSD) is a common gastrointestinal disorder throughout the world. The authors explored the incidence of GSD in Taiwan and its condition-associated predictive factors. The initial study cohort comprised 2386 healthy adult participants, who were voluntarily admitted to a teaching hospital for a physical check-up in 2002 in Taipei, Taiwan. After excluding 126 patients who exhibited prevalent GSD, 2260 non-GSD participants received annual follow-up screenings for GSD until 31 December, 2007. Of those, 1296 (57.3%) patients were re-examined to collect blood samples and conduct ultrasound sonography. Among the 1296 participants who exhibited no GSD at the first screening, 23 patients developed GSD during 3640 person-years of follow-up. The incidence was 0.632% per year (95% CI: 0.292%-2.009%). After conducting a Cox regression, increased age (50-59 years versus < 40 years, RR = 2.16 [95% CI: 1.09-5.97], 60+ years versus < 40 years, RR = 3.81 [95% CI: 2.77-8.63]), high body mass index (>=27 kg/m2 versus < 24 kg/m2, RR = 1.64 [95% CI: 1.07-2.98]), high fasting plasma glucose levels (>=126 mg/dL versus < 110 mg/dL, RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.10-3.87), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (yes versus no, RR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21-1.90) appeared to be significantly related to developing GSD. Increased age is a well-established risk factor for developing GSD. The current findings indicated that high body mass index, elevated fasting plasma glucose levels, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were also associated with GSD.BMC Gastroenterology 04/2014; 14(1):83. DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-14-83 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Relationship between gallstones and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and largely non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is uncertain. To determine the prevalence, non-invasive fibrosis markers profile and risk factors for biopsy-proven NAFLD and NASH among patients with gallstones. Anthropometric and laboratory evaluation, an abdominal ultrasound and a liver biopsy were performed to 215 consecutive patients with gallstones referred for cholecystectomy. Prevalence of NASH was 10.2% whereas that of simple steatosis (SS) was 41.4%. In the cohort of NAFLD patients, negative predictive values for advanced fibrosis of FIB-4 and NAFLD fibrosis score were 96% and 95%, respectively. Gallstones patients with NASH had a higher mean homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) score than those with SS (P = 0.015). Noteworthy, NASH was 2.5-fold more frequent in patients with gallstones who had metabolic syndrome than in those who did not (P < 0.001). Fatty liver on ultrasound was observed in 90.9% of gallstones patients with NASH compared with 61.8% of those with SS (P = 0.044). Using multivariate logistic regression, increased HOMA score (OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 1.41-8.52; P = 0.007) and fatty liver on ultrasound (OR, 23.27; 95% CI, 4.15-130.55; P < 0.001) were the only factors independently associated with NASH. Prevalence of NASH among patients with gallstones is lower than estimated previously, but NASH is frequent particularly in those patients with concurrent metabolic syndrome. The combination of an increased HOMA score with fatty liver on ultrasound has a good accuracy for predicting NASH in patients with gallstones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/liv.12813 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to examine whether the presence of gallstone disease (GD) in patients with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with liver fibrosis and histological nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) score. We included 441 Turkish patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. GD was diagnosed in the presence of sonographic evidence of gallstones, echogenic material within the gallbladder with constant shadowing and little or no visualization of the gallbladder or absence of gallbladder at ultrasonography, coupled with a history of cholecystectomy. Fifty-four patients (12.2%) had GD (GD+ subjects). Compared with the GD- subjects, GD+ patients were older, had a higher body mass index and were more likely to be female and have metabolic syndrome. However, GD+ patients did not have a higher risk of advanced fibrosis or definite NASH on histology. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, the prevalence of GD in NAFLD patients was not associated with significant fibrosis (≥2) (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 2.21; p=0.68) or definite NASH (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.495 to 2.12; p=0.84). The presence of GD is not independently associated with advanced fibrosis and definite NASH in adult Turkish patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.Gut and Liver 05/2014; 8(3):313-7. DOI:10.5009/gnl.2014.8.3.313 · 1.49 Impact Factor