Gallstones associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic syndrome
ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and metabolic syndrome in patients with symptomatic gallstones undergoing laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy.
A study of 95 patients was performed. Simultaneous liver biopsies were taken during cholecystectomy between 2006 and 2007. There were no postoperative complications. Patients with significant alcohol intake, hepatitis B or C (virus-positive), autoimmune diseases, and Wilson's disease were excluded. Demographics, liver function tests, lipid profile, and ultrasound findings of patients with and without non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were compared.
A total of 95 patients completed the study. The mean age was 52.15 years, and 29 patients were male and 66 female. Fifty-two patients (55%) had biopsies compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Fifty-five percent of patients with gallbladder stones had associated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Awareness of this association may result in an earlier diagnosis. The high prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in patients with gallbladder stone may justify routine liver biopsy during cholecystectomy to establish the diagnosis and stage and possibly direct therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about risk factors for biliary pancreatitis in children. We characterized cases of pediatric biliary pancreatitis, compared biliary with nonbiliary cases, examined differences in presentation between younger and older children, and studied features distinguishing gallstone- from sludge-induced pancreatitis. We evaluated 76 episodes of biliary pancreatitis from 271 cases of acute pancreatitis in children admitted to a tertiary care hospital from 1994 to 2007. Of the 76 cases, 55% had gallstones, 21% had sludge, and 24% had structural defects. Hispanic children had 2.85 (P = 0.01) and 5.59 (P = 0.003) times higher probability for biliary pancreatitis than white and black children, respectively. Median serum amylase and lipase in children with biliary pancreatitis were 64% and 49% higher, respectively, compared with other causes (P < 0.05). In multiple logistic regression, aspartate aminotransferase was an independent predictor of biliary pancreatitis (odds ratio 6.69, P = 0.001). When comparing gallstone- with sludge-induced causes, obesity was an independent predictor (38% more prevalent, P < 0.01) of gallstone cases. Hispanic ethnicity is a risk factor and aspartate aminotransferase is a biomarker for biliary pancreatitis over other causes. Furthermore, obesity can distinguish gallstone- from sludge-induced pancreatitis. These findings may spur prospective studies to determine the optimal evaluation and management of children with biliary pancreatitis.Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 10/2011; 54(5):651-6. DOI:10.1097/MPG.0b013e31823a897d · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and gallstone disease (GD) are both highly prevalent in the general population and are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and high dietary cholesterol intake. Insulin resistance is a key feature of both NAFLD and GD. Hepatic insulin resistance provides a crucial link between the metabolic syndrome, NAFLD, and increased cholesterol gallstone susceptibility. Hepatic insulin resistance is not only associated with accumulation of hepatic fat but also has a crucial role in supersaturation and excessive production of bile salts. It is not yet clear whether NAFLD is a precursor of GD or whether the presence of GD possibly indicates the presence of long-standing features of metabolic syndrome that accelerates the progression of NAFLD. Recent reports suggested the association between gallstones and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. Importantly, both NAFLD and GD are both associated with high incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Emerging evidence suggests a potential benefit of statin therapy in NAFLD and GD. Further research is needed to determine (i) how the presence of NAFLD and GD is associated with CVD (ii) and whether the presence of GD in association with NAFLD increases the risk of liver fibrosis, and (iii) the impact of therapy of NAFLD in the incidence of GD.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2014; 49(5). DOI:10.3109/00365521.2014.894119 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gallstone disease (GSD) is a common gastrointestinal disorder throughout the world. The authors explored the incidence of GSD in Taiwan and its condition-associated predictive factors. The initial study cohort comprised 2386 healthy adult participants, who were voluntarily admitted to a teaching hospital for a physical check-up in 2002 in Taipei, Taiwan. After excluding 126 patients who exhibited prevalent GSD, 2260 non-GSD participants received annual follow-up screenings for GSD until 31 December, 2007. Of those, 1296 (57.3%) patients were re-examined to collect blood samples and conduct ultrasound sonography. Among the 1296 participants who exhibited no GSD at the first screening, 23 patients developed GSD during 3640 person-years of follow-up. The incidence was 0.632% per year (95% CI: 0.292%-2.009%). After conducting a Cox regression, increased age (50-59 years versus < 40 years, RR = 2.16 [95% CI: 1.09-5.97], 60+ years versus < 40 years, RR = 3.81 [95% CI: 2.77-8.63]), high body mass index (>=27 kg/m2 versus < 24 kg/m2, RR = 1.64 [95% CI: 1.07-2.98]), high fasting plasma glucose levels (>=126 mg/dL versus < 110 mg/dL, RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.10-3.87), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (yes versus no, RR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21-1.90) appeared to be significantly related to developing GSD. Increased age is a well-established risk factor for developing GSD. The current findings indicated that high body mass index, elevated fasting plasma glucose levels, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were also associated with GSD.BMC Gastroenterology 04/2014; 14(1):83. DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-14-83 · 2.11 Impact Factor