Quantitative analysis of matrix metalloproteinase-2 mRNA expression in central and peripheral regions of gliomas.
ABSTRACT Malignant gliomas are characterized by their invasiveness and angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix and create a more permissive environment for cell invasion. We aimed to investigate for the presence of inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity in MMP-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by means of quantitative analysis and to evaluate its prognostic impact in glioma patients. Representative sections from the center and periphery of tumors resected en bloc were taken fresh for study, stained with hematoxylin/eosin for histological evaluation, and immunohistochemically analyzed for Ki-67. MMP-2 mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). There was MMP-2 expression in all analyzed tumors. By topographical dissection of surgical specimens, we found no differences in cell proliferation or density but significant differences with regard to MMP-2 mRNA expression between central and peripheral regions, being highest at the center of malignant gliomas. MMP-2 mRNA expression showed no prognostic influence on overall or disease-free survival. Our results demonstrate that MMP-2 is differentially expressed in central and peripheral regions of gliomas. Further studies are necessary to clarify the significance of these findings and their possible relevance in clinical practice.
- SourceAvailable from: Longjian Liu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The disparate lengths of survival among patients with malignant astrocytic gliomas (anaplastic astrocytomas [AAs] and glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]) cannot be adequately accounted for by clinical variables (patient age, histology, and recurrent status). Using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we quantified the expression of four genes that were putative prognostic markers (CDK4, IGFBP2, MMP2, and RPS9) in a set of 43 AAs, 41 GBMs, and seven adjacent normal brain tissues. We previously explicated the expression and prognostic value of PAX6, PTEN, VEGF, and EGFR in these glioma tissues and established a comprehensive prognostic model (Zhou et al., 2003). This study attempts to improve that model by including four additional genetic markers, which exhibited a differential expression (P < 0.001) among tumor grades and between tumor and normal tissues. By including eight log-scaled gene expression variables, three clinical variables, and interaction terms among the eight genes, we established a prognostic model that accounted for two thirds of the variation (R2) in survival for this set of patients. To improve the R2 of the model without compromising its clinical utility, our data demonstrated that incorporating genes from different pathways markedly strengthens the model. Spearman rank correlation analysis of gene expression demonstrated a statistically significant positive correlation (P < 0.01) between the expression of IGFBP2-MMP2 and IGFBP2-VEGF in GBMs, but not in AAs. This finding suggests that the expression of IGFBP2 is associated with pathways activated specifically in GBMs that result in enhancing invasiveness and angiogenesis.Neuro-Oncology 10/2005; 7(4):485-94. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cellular mechanisms leading to metastatic disease in medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood, are mainly unknown. Recently, however, the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been suggested. We examined the expression and localization of four MMPs-MMP-2 and -9, membrane-type 1 and 2 MMP (MT1- and MT2-MMP)-and correlated the data with those for their main inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1, -2, and -3), in 83 classical and 18 desmoplastic MBs. Independent of the histological subtype, MMP-2 expression was found in a small percentage of tumors, whereas MMP-9 and MT1- or MT2-MMP were expressed in >75% of tumor samples. The expression of TIMP-1, -2, and -3, on the other hand, was found to depend on the histological subtype: TIMP-3 was often found in classical MB, whereas TIMP-2 was often expressed in desmoplastic MB (P = 0.007-0.001). In addition, both TIMP-3 and -2 correlated significantly with the expression of all studied metalloproteinases except MMP-2. TIMP-1, detected only in classical MB in a low percentage, was the only TIMP that correlated with the expression of MMP-2. Kaplan-Meier estimation revealed significantly reduced long-term survival of patients with strong MMP expression in tumor samples. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, however, the prognosis was significantly determined only by clinical parameters. TIMP-3 and -2 expression is highly correlated with histological subtypes of MBs and strongly associated with the expression of certain MMPs. The expression of TIMPs and MMPs, however, does not determine prognosis independently of clinical parameters.Clinical Cancer Research 08/2004; 10(14):4746-53. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic silencing of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) by promoter methylation is associated with improved survival in glioblastomas treated with alkylating agents. In this study, we investigated MGMT promoter methylation in glioblastomas treated with temozolomide and radiotherapy in a single UK treatment centre. Quantitative methylation data at individual CpG sites were obtained by pyrosequencing for 109 glioblastomas. Median overall survival (OS) was 12.4 months with 2-year survival of 17.9%. Pyrosequencing data were reproducible with archival samples yielding data for all glioblastomas. Variation in methylation patterns of discrete CpG sites and intratumoral methylation heterogeneity were observed. A total of 58 out of 109 glioblastomas showed average methylation >non-neoplastic brain in at least one clinical sample; 86% had homogeneous methylation status in multiple samples. Methylation was an independent prognostic factor associated with prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and OS. Cases with methylation more than 35% had the longest survival (median PFS 19.2; OS 26.2 months, 2-year survival of 59.7%). Significant differences in PFS were seen between those with intermediate or high methylation and unmethylated cases, whereas cases with low, intermediate or high methylation all showed significantly different OS. These data indicate that MGMT methylation is prognostically significant in glioblastomas given chemoradiotherapy in the routine clinic; furthermore, the extent of methylation may be used to provide additional prognostic stratification.British Journal of Cancer 06/2009; 101(1):124-31. · 5.08 Impact Factor