Short- and long-term outcome of HIV-infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit

Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.54). 02/2011; 30(9):1085-93. DOI: 10.1007/s10096-011-1196-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the impact of the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the long-term outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU was undertaken. Outcomes in the pre-HAART era (1990-June 1996), early- (July 1996-2002), and recent-HAART (2003-2008) periods and total HAART era (July 1996-2008) were analysed and compared with those reported of the general population. A total of 127 ICU admissions were included. The 1-year mortality decreased from 71% in the pre-HAART era to 50% in the recent-HAART period (p = 0.06). The 5-year mortality decreased from 87% in the pre-HAART era to 59% in the early-HAART period (p = 0.005). Independent predictors of 1-year mortality in the HAART era were age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-1.27]), APACHE II score > 20 (6.04 [1.25-29.22]) and mechanical ventilation (40.01 [3.01-532.65]). The 5-year survival after hospitalisation was 80% and in the range of the reported survival of non-HIV-infected patients (83.7%). Predictors of 1-year mortality for HIV patients admitted to the ICU in the HAART era were all non-HIV-related. Short- and long-term outcome has improved since the introduction of HAART and is comparable to the outcome data in non-HIV-infected ICU patients.

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the short- and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) according to immunovirological status at admission and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use in ICU. Retrospective study of 98 HIV-infected patients hospitalized between 1997 and 2008 in two medical ICU in Montpellier, France. The primary outcome was mortality in ICU. The secondary end point was probability of survival in the year following ICU admission. Eighty-two (83.6%) admissions in ICU were related to HIV infection and 45% of patients had received HAART before admission. Sixty-two patients (63.3%) were discharged from ICU, and 34 (34.7%) were alive at 1 year. Plasma HIV RNA viral load (VL) and CD4+ cell count separately were not associated with outcome. Independent predictors of ICU mortality were the use of vasopressive agents (odds ratio (OR), 3.779; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-12.861; p = 0.0334) and SAPS II score (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.003-1.077; p = 0.0319), whereas introducing or continuing HAART in ICU was protective (OR, 0.278; 95% CI, 0.082-0.939; p = 0.0393). Factors independently associated with 1-year mortality were immunovirological status with high VL (>3 log10/ml) and low CD4 (<200/mm3; hazard ratio (HR), 5.19; 95% CI, 1.328-20.279; p = 0.0179) or low VL (<3 log10/ml) and low CD4 (HR, 4.714; 95% CI, 1.178-18.867; p = 0.0284) vs. high CD4 and low VL, coinfection with C hepatitis virus (HR, 3.268; 95% CI, 1.29-8.278; p = 0.0125), the use of vasopressive agents (HR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.394-9.716; p = 0.0085), and SAPS II score (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.057-1.124; p <0.0001). Introducing HAART in a patient with no HAART at admission was associated with a better long-term outcome (HR, 0.166; 95% CI, 0.043-0.642; p = 0.0093). In a population of HIV-infected patients admitted to ICU, short- and long-term outcomes are related to acute illness severity and immunovirological status at admission. Complementary studies are necessary to identify HIV-infected patients who benefit from HAART use in ICU according to immunovirological status and the reasons of ICU admission.
    07/2012; 2(1):25. DOI:10.1186/2110-5820-2-25
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    ABSTRACT: Background HIV positive patients are at risk of infectious and non-infectious complications that may necessitate intensive care unit (ICU) admission. While the characteristics of patients requiring ICU admission have been described previously, these studies did not include information on the denominator population from which these cases arose. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study of ICU admissions among 2751 HIV positive patients attending King’s College Hospital, South London, UK. Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with ICU admission. Results The overall incidence rate of ICU admission was 1.0 [95% CI 0.8, 1.2] per 100 person-years of follow up, and particularly high early (during the first 3 months) following HIV diagnosis (12.4 [8.7, 17.3] per 100 person-years compared to 0.37 [0.27, 0.50] per 100 person-years thereafter; incidence rate ratio 33.5 [23.4, 48.1], p < 0.001). In time-updated analyses, AIDS and current CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 were associated with an increased incidence of ICU admission while receipt of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was associated with a reduced incidence of ICU admission. Late HIV diagnosis (initial CD4 cell count <350 or AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis) applied to 81% of patients who were first diagnosed HIV positive during the study period and who required ICU admission. Late HIV diagnosis was significantly associated with ICU admission in the first 3 months following HIV diagnosis (adjusted incidence rate ratio 8.72, 95% CI 2.76, 27.5). Conclusions Late HIV diagnosis was a major risk factor for early ICU admission in our cohort. Earlier HIV diagnosis allowing cART initiation at CD4 cell counts of 350 cells/mm3 is likely to have a significant impact on the need for ICU care.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2013; 13(1):23. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-13-23 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed the prognosis for patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). With effective ART, these individuals can expect to live almost as long as their HIV-negative counterparts. Given that more than a million people infected with HIV currently live in the United States, the likelihood that the practicing intensivist will manage a patient infected with HIV is high. This review discusses the challenges associated with management of critically ill patients infected with HIV, including the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (a complication associated with ART initiation), ART-related toxicities, and the management of some common opportunistic infections.
    Clinics in chest medicine 06/2013; 34(2):307-323. DOI:10.1016/j.ccm.2013.01.011 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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