Short- and long-term outcome of HIV-infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit

Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.67). 02/2011; 30(9):1085-93. DOI: 10.1007/s10096-011-1196-z
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the impact of the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the long-term outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU was undertaken. Outcomes in the pre-HAART era (1990-June 1996), early- (July 1996-2002), and recent-HAART (2003-2008) periods and total HAART era (July 1996-2008) were analysed and compared with those reported of the general population. A total of 127 ICU admissions were included. The 1-year mortality decreased from 71% in the pre-HAART era to 50% in the recent-HAART period (p = 0.06). The 5-year mortality decreased from 87% in the pre-HAART era to 59% in the early-HAART period (p = 0.005). Independent predictors of 1-year mortality in the HAART era were age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-1.27]), APACHE II score > 20 (6.04 [1.25-29.22]) and mechanical ventilation (40.01 [3.01-532.65]). The 5-year survival after hospitalisation was 80% and in the range of the reported survival of non-HIV-infected patients (83.7%). Predictors of 1-year mortality for HIV patients admitted to the ICU in the HAART era were all non-HIV-related. Short- and long-term outcome has improved since the introduction of HAART and is comparable to the outcome data in non-HIV-infected ICU patients.

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    • "Retrospective cohort studies have shown that prognostic factors of mortality in HIV-infected patients admitted to ICU were acute illness severity, poor functional status, low albumin rate, and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation [2,8,11-14]. No specific HIV characteristics (CD4 cell count value, plasma HIV RNA load, HIV-related diagnosis, or management of antiretroviral therapy) were clearly identified as predictors of ICU mortality [6,8-13,15-21], except in one study where the majority of ICU patients had an AIDS-defining illnesses, in which very low CD4 T-cell count (<50 cells/mm3) was found to be associated with ICU mortality [17]. We believe that to consider CD4 value and HIV viral load values separately in an HIV-infected population admitted to ICU is not sufficient to assess the prognosis properly. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the short- and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) according to immunovirological status at admission and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use in ICU. Retrospective study of 98 HIV-infected patients hospitalized between 1997 and 2008 in two medical ICU in Montpellier, France. The primary outcome was mortality in ICU. The secondary end point was probability of survival in the year following ICU admission. Eighty-two (83.6%) admissions in ICU were related to HIV infection and 45% of patients had received HAART before admission. Sixty-two patients (63.3%) were discharged from ICU, and 34 (34.7%) were alive at 1 year. Plasma HIV RNA viral load (VL) and CD4+ cell count separately were not associated with outcome. Independent predictors of ICU mortality were the use of vasopressive agents (odds ratio (OR), 3.779; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-12.861; p = 0.0334) and SAPS II score (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.003-1.077; p = 0.0319), whereas introducing or continuing HAART in ICU was protective (OR, 0.278; 95% CI, 0.082-0.939; p = 0.0393). Factors independently associated with 1-year mortality were immunovirological status with high VL (>3 log10/ml) and low CD4 (<200/mm3; hazard ratio (HR), 5.19; 95% CI, 1.328-20.279; p = 0.0179) or low VL (<3 log10/ml) and low CD4 (HR, 4.714; 95% CI, 1.178-18.867; p = 0.0284) vs. high CD4 and low VL, coinfection with C hepatitis virus (HR, 3.268; 95% CI, 1.29-8.278; p = 0.0125), the use of vasopressive agents (HR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.394-9.716; p = 0.0085), and SAPS II score (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.057-1.124; p <0.0001). Introducing HAART in a patient with no HAART at admission was associated with a better long-term outcome (HR, 0.166; 95% CI, 0.043-0.642; p = 0.0093). In a population of HIV-infected patients admitted to ICU, short- and long-term outcomes are related to acute illness severity and immunovirological status at admission. Complementary studies are necessary to identify HIV-infected patients who benefit from HAART use in ICU according to immunovirological status and the reasons of ICU admission.
    Annals of Intensive Care 07/2012; 2(1):25. DOI:10.1186/2110-5820-2-25 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy, a considerable proportion of HIV-infected patients do not achieve adequate immune recovery in terms of the CD4+ T-cell count, although they have controlled viremia values. Many questions remain for clinicians in the management of these patients, defined as immunological nonresponders, including questions about the mechanisms underlying the lack of immune restoration and possible therapeutic approaches to this particular group of patients.
    Future Virology 09/2012; 7(9):911-921. DOI:10.2217/fvl.12.80 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ominous prognosis of cancer patients with or without neutropenia in need of critical care has led to reservations with regard to admission of cancer patients to the ICU. However, significant improvements in ICU and in-hospital survival of cancer patients in ICU have been demonstrated in studies in recent years [1–4]. Risk factors for mortality have shifted from those related to the underlying condition to those related to the severity of acute illness similar to other critically-ill patients. Neutropenia per se and the underlying malignancy (solid and hematological) do not have an impact on the outcome of patients in ICU. Recent chemotherapy is associated rather with improved survival [3, 5–7], while organ dysfunction, severity of disease scores, need for vasopressor treatment, need for mechanical ventilation immediately or after noninvasive ventilation, no definite diagnosis and a non-infectious diagnosis are associated with mortality [1–3, 8]. Invasive aspergillosis is also associated with very high mortality rates in ICU (see below). In several studies, admission to ICU in the early stages of sepsis or other acute event was associated with better survival than admission later, after development of organ dysfunction. Performance status is perhaps the most important and only variable relating to the underlying condition that is correlated with ICU death. The prognosis remains guarded for certain cancer patients, including patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with active uncontrolled graft versus host disease, those with relapse of the primary disease after allogeneic HSCT and special cases of solid cancer including pulmonary carcinomatous lymphangitis and carcinomatous meningitis with coma [9].
    Infections in the Adult Intensive Care Unit, 01/2013: pages 159-175; , ISBN: 978-1-4471-4317-8
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