Role of STIM1/Orai1-mediated store-operated Ca²⁺ entry in airway smooth muscle cell proliferation.
ABSTRACT Hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is a characteristic change of chronic asthma patients. However, the underlying mechanisms that trigger this process are not yet completely understood. Store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) entry (SOCE) occurs in response to the intracellular sarcoplasma reticulum (SR)/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store depletion. SOCE plays an important role in regulating Ca(2+) signaling and cellular responses of ASMCs. Stromal interaction molecule (STIM)1 has been proposed as an ER/SR Ca(2+) sensor and translocates to the ER underneath the plasma membrane upon depletion of the ER Ca(2+) store, where it interacts with Orai1, the molecular component of SOC channels, and brings about SOCE. STIM1 and Orai1 have been proved to mediate SOCE of ASMCs. In this study, we investigated whether STIM1/Orai1-mediated SOCE is involved in rat ASMC proliferation. We found that SOCE was upregulated during ASMC proliferation accompanied by a mild increase of STIM1 and a significant increase of Orai1 mRNA expression, whereas the proliferation of ASMCs was partially inhibited by the SOC channel blockers SKF-96365, NiCl(2), and BTP-2. Suppressing the mRNA expression of STIM1 or Orai1 with specific short hairpin RNA resulted in the attenuation of SOCE and ASMC proliferation. Moreover, after knockdown of STIM1 or Orai1, the SOC channel blocker SKF-96365 had no inhibitory effect on the proliferation of ASMCs anymore. These results suggested that STIM1/Orai1-mediated SOCE is involved in ASMC proliferation.
- SourceAvailable from: Masahiro Sokabe[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is suggested that migration of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in asthma. Increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) regulate most ASM cell functions related to asthma, such as contraction and proliferation. Recently, STIM1 was identified as a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) sensor that activates Orai1, the Ca(2+) channel responsible for store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). We investigated the role of STIM1 in [Ca(2+)](i) and cell migration induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB in human ASM cells. Cell migration was assessed by a chemotaxis chamber assay. Human ASM cells express STIM1, STIM2, and Orai1 mRNAs. SOCE activated by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of SR Ca(2+)-ATPase, was significantly blocked by STIM1 siRNA and Orai1 siRNA but not by STIM2 siRNA. PDGF-BB induced a transient increase in [Ca(2+)](i) followed by sustained [Ca(2+)](i) elevation. Sustained increases in [Ca(2+)](i) due to PDGF-BB were significantly inhibited by a Ca(2+) chelating agent EGTA or by siRNA for STIM1 or Orai1. The numbers of migrating cells were significantly increased by PDGF-BB treatment for 6 h. Knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 by siRNA transfection inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration. Similarly, EGTA significantly inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration. In contrast, transfection with siRNA for STIM2 did not inhibit the sustained elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) or cell migration induced by PDGF-BB. These results demonstrate that STIM1 and Orai1 are essential for PDGF-induced cell migration and Ca(2+) influx in human ASM cells. STIM1 could be an important molecule responsible for airway remodeling.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45056. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intracellular [Formula: see text] dynamics of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) mediate ASMC contraction and proliferation, and thus play a key role in airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and remodelling in asthma. We evaluate the importance of store-operated [Formula: see text] entry (SOCE) in these [Formula: see text] dynamics by constructing a mathematical model of ASMC [Formula: see text] signaling based on experimental data from lung slices. The model confirms that SOCE is elicited upon sufficient [Formula: see text] depletion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), while receptor-operated [Formula: see text] entry (ROCE) is inhibited in such conditions. It also shows that SOCE can sustain agonist-induced [Formula: see text] oscillations in the absence of other [Formula: see text] influx. SOCE up-regulation may thus contribute to AHR by increasing the [Formula: see text] oscillation frequency that in turn regulates ASMC contraction. The model also provides an explanation for the failure of the SERCA pump blocker CPA to clamp the cytosolic [Formula: see text] of ASMC in lung slices, by showing that CPA is unable to maintain the SR empty of [Formula: see text]. This prediction is confirmed by experimental data from mouse lung slices, and strongly suggests that CPA only partially inhibits SERCA in ASMC.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e69598. · 3.73 Impact Factor