Hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is a characteristic change of chronic asthma patients. However, the underlying mechanisms that trigger this process are not yet completely understood. Store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) entry (SOCE) occurs in response to the intracellular sarcoplasma reticulum (SR)/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store depletion. SOCE plays an important role in regulating Ca(2+) signaling and cellular responses of ASMCs. Stromal interaction molecule (STIM)1 has been proposed as an ER/SR Ca(2+) sensor and translocates to the ER underneath the plasma membrane upon depletion of the ER Ca(2+) store, where it interacts with Orai1, the molecular component of SOC channels, and brings about SOCE. STIM1 and Orai1 have been proved to mediate SOCE of ASMCs. In this study, we investigated whether STIM1/Orai1-mediated SOCE is involved in rat ASMC proliferation. We found that SOCE was upregulated during ASMC proliferation accompanied by a mild increase of STIM1 and a significant increase of Orai1 mRNA expression, whereas the proliferation of ASMCs was partially inhibited by the SOC channel blockers SKF-96365, NiCl(2), and BTP-2. Suppressing the mRNA expression of STIM1 or Orai1 with specific short hairpin RNA resulted in the attenuation of SOCE and ASMC proliferation. Moreover, after knockdown of STIM1 or Orai1, the SOC channel blocker SKF-96365 had no inhibitory effect on the proliferation of ASMCs anymore. These results suggested that STIM1/Orai1-mediated SOCE is involved in ASMC proliferation.
"Functionally, SOCE has been implicated in ASM contraction  through the maintenance of Ca 2þ oscillations  and in regulating migration and proliferation of ASM cells. SOCE is elevated in proliferating ASM cells, relative to quiescent cells   and Orai1 expression is also increased in proliferating cells . PDGF and serum-mediated ASM cell migration has been shown to be dependent upon STIM1 and Orai1 expression, using siRNA approaches  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free calcium ions within the cytosol serve as a key secondary messenger system for a diverse range of cellular processes. Dysregulation of cytosolic Ca2+ handling in airway smooth muscle (ASM) has been implicated in asthma, and it has been hypothesised that this leads, at least in part, to associated changes in both the architecture and function of the lung. Significant research is therefore directed towards furthering our understanding of the mechanisms which control ASM cytosolic calcium, in addition to those regulating the sensitivity of its downstream effector targets to calcium. Key aspects of the recent developments in this field were discussed at the 8th Young Investigators' Symposium on Smooth Muscle (2013, Groningen, The Netherlands), and are outlined in this review.
"During phagocytosis, the recruitment of STIM1 towards phagosomes is required for the opening of phagosomal Ca2+ channels that generates localized Ca2+ elevations to promote high-efficiency phagocytosis . In the lung, STIM1-Orai1 upregulation leads to an increase in pulmonary smooth muscle cell proliferation and in endothelial cell migration and vessel formation [65,66]. During lactation, the expression of Orai1 and STIM2 in mouse mammary glands is increased, whereas STIM1 is downregulated, indicating that Orai1-dependent SOCE may be one of the important Ca2+ influx routes to meet Ca2+ transport demand during lactation . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular Ca2+ is one of the crucial signalings that modulate various cellular functions. The dysregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis has been suggested as an important event in driving the expression of the malignant phenotypes, such as proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis. Cell migration is an early prerequisite for tumor metastasis that has a significant impact on patient prognosis. During cell migration, the exquisite spatial and temporal organization of intracellular Ca2+ provides a rapid and robust way for the selective activation of signaling components that play a central role in cytoskeletal reorganization, traction force generation, and focal adhesion dynamics. A number of known molecular components involved in Ca2+ influx pathways, including stromal interaction molecule (STIM)/Orai-mediated store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and the Ca2+-permeable transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, have been implicated in cancer cell migration and tumor metastasis. The clinical significance of these molecules, such as STIM proteins and the TRPM7 channel, in tumor progression and their diagnostic and prognostic potentials have also been demonstrated in specific cancer types. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the important roles and regulatory mechanisms of these Ca2+ influx pathways on malignant behaviors of tumor cells. The clinical implications in facilitating current diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are also discussed.
"SOCE, also known as capacitative Ca2+ entry, is thought to have an essential role in the regulation of contraction, cell proliferation, and apoptosis [23-25]. As a Ca2+ sensor in the ER, STIM1 is capable of triggering a cascade of reactions leading to SOCE activation , and involved in control of nontumorous cell proliferation [26-28]. Several studies have shown that STIM1 is overexpressed in human glioblastoma [15,16], but the molecular mechanism was not identified. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Depletion of calcium (Ca2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates the ubiquitous store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) pathway which sustains long-term Ca2+ signals and is critical for cellular functions. Stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) serves a dual role as an ER Ca2+ sensor and activator of SOCE. Aberrant expression of STIM1 could be observed in several human cancer cells. However, the role of STIM1 in regulating tumorigenesis of human glioblastoma still remains unclear.
Expression of STIM1 protein in a panel of human glioblastoma cell lines (U251, U87 and U373) in different transformation level were evaluated by Western blot method. STIM1 loss of function was performed on U251 cells, derived from grade IV astrocytomas-glioblastoma multiforme with a lentvirus-mediated short harpin RNA (shRNA) method. The biological impacts after knock down of STIM1 on glioblastoma cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo.
We discovered that STIM1 protein was expressed in U251, U87 and U373 cells, and especially higher in U251 cells. RNA interference efficiently downregulated the expression of STIM1 in U251 cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Specific downregulation of STIM1 inhibited U251 cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase through regulation of cell cycle-related genes, such as p21Waf1/Cip1, cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and the antiproliferative effect of STIM1 silencing was also observed in U251 glioma xenograft tumor model.
Our findings confirm STIM1 as a rational therapeutic target in human glioblastoma, and also indicate that lentivirus-mediated STIM1 silencing is a promising therapeutic strategy for human glioblastoma.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 04/2013; 32(1):20. DOI:10.1186/1756-9966-32-20 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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