cpsf1 is required for definitive HSC survival in zebrafish
ABSTRACT A comprehensive understanding of the genes and pathways regulating hematopoiesis is needed to identify genes causally related to bone marrow failure syndromes, myelodysplastic syndromes, and hematopoietic neoplasms. To identify novel genes involved in hematopoiesis, we performed an ethyl-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen in zebrafish (Danio rerio) to search for mutants with defective definitive hematopoiesis. We report the recovery and analysis of the grechetto mutant, which harbors an inactivating mutation in cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 1 (cpsf1), a gene ubiquitously expressed and required for 3' untranslated region processing of a subset of pre-mRNAs. grechetto mutants undergo normal primitive hematopoiesis and specify appropriate numbers of definitive HSCs at 36 hours postfertilization. However, when HSCs migrate to the caudal hematopoietic tissue at 3 days postfertilization, their numbers start decreasing as a result of apoptotic cell death. Consistent with Cpsf1 function, c-myb:EGFP(+) cells in grechetto mutants also show defective polyadenylation of snrnp70, a gene required for HSC development. By 5 days postfertilization, definitive hematopoiesis is compromised and severely decreased blood cell numbers are observed across the myeloid, erythroid, and lymphoid cell lineages. These studies show that cpsf1 is essential for HSC survival and differentiation in caudal hematopoietic tissue.
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ABSTRACT: Proper neural crest development and migration is critical during embryonic development, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this process remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the protein kinase Erk, which plays a central role in a number of key developmental processes in vertebrates, is regulated in the developing neural crest by p21-activated protein kinase 1 (Pak1). Furthermore, we show that activated Erk signals by phosphorylating the transcription factor Gata6 on a conserved serine residue to promote neural crest migration and proper formation of craniofacial structures, pigment cells, and the outflow tract of the heart. Our data suggest an essential role for Pak1 as an Erk activator, and Gata6 as an Erk target, during neural crest development.Developmental Cell 05/2014; 29(3):350-9. DOI:10.1016/j.devcel.2014.04.003 · 10.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Ten-ElevenTranslocation-2 (TET2) gene encodes a member of the TET family of DNA methylcytosine oxidases that converts 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) to initiate the demethylation of DNA within genomic CpG islands. Somatic loss-of-function mutations of TET2 are frequently observed in human myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which is a clonal malignancy characterized by dysplastic changes of developing blood cell progenitors leading to ineffective hematopoiesis. We used genome editing technology to disrupt the zebrafish Tet2 catalytic domain. tet2 m/m zebrafish exhibited normal embryonic and larval hematopoiesis, but developed progressive clonal myelodysplasia as they aged, culminating in MDS at 24 months of age, with dysplasia of myeloid progenitor cells and anemia with abnormal circulating erythrocytes. The resultant tet2 m/m mutant zebrafish lines show decreased levels of 5hmC in hematopoietic cells of the kidney marrow, but not in other cell types, most likely reflecting the ability of other Tet family members to provide this enzymatic activity in non-hematopoietic tissues but not in hematopoietic cells. tet2 m/m are viable and fertile, providing an ideal model to dissect altered pathways in hematopoietic cells and for small molecule screens in embryos to identify compounds with specific activity against tet2 mutant cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.Molecular and Cellular Biology 12/2014; 35(5). DOI:10.1128/MCB.00971-14 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the mutualistic relationship between the squid Euprymna tasmanica and the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, several host factors, including immune-related proteins, are known to interact and respond specifically and exclusively to the presence of the symbiont. In squid and octopus, the white body is considered to be an immune organ mainly due to the fact that blood cells, or hemocytes, are known to be present in high numbers and in different developmental stages. Hence, the white body has been described as the site of hematopoiesis in cephalopods. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies showing any molecular evidence of such functions. In this study, we performed a transcriptomic analysis of white body tissue of the Southern dumpling squid, E. tasmanica. Our primary goal was to gain insights into the functions of this tissue and to test for the presence of gene transcripts associated with hematopoietic and immune processes. Several hematopoiesis genes including CPSF1, GATA 2, TFIID, and FGFR2 were found to be expressed in the white body. In addition, transcripts associated with immune-related signal transduction pathways, such as the toll-like receptor/NF-κβ, and MAPK pathways were also found, as well as other immune genes previously identified in E. tasmanica's sister species, E. scolopes. This study is the first to analyze an immune organ within cephalopods, and to provide gene expression data supporting the white body as a hematopoietic tissue.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119949. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119949 · 3.53 Impact Factor