Fallani M, Amarri S, Uusijarvi A, Adam R, Khanna S, Aguilera M et al.. Determinants of the human infant intestinal microbiota after the introduction of first complementary foods in infant samples from five European centres. Microbiol Read Engl 157: 1385-1392

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Unité d'Écologie et de Physiologie du Système Digestif, Jouy en Josas, France.
Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.56). 02/2011; 157(Pt 5):1385-92. DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.042143-0
Source: PubMed


Although it is well established that early infant feeding has a major influence on the establishment of the gut microbiota, very little is understood about how the introduction of first solid food influences the colonization process. This study aimed to determine the impact of weaning on the faecal microbiota composition of infants from five European countries (Sweden, Scotland, Germany, Italy and Spain) which have different lifestyle characteristics and infant feeding practices. Faecal samples were collected from 605 infants approximately 4 weeks after the introduction of first solid foods and the results were compared with the same infants before weaning (6 weeks of age) to investigate the association with determining factors such as geographical origin, mode of delivery, previous feeding method and age of weaning. Samples were analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry using a panel of 10 rRNA targeted group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes. The genus Bifidobacterium (36.5 % average proportion of total detectable bacteria), Clostridium coccoides group (14 %) and Bacteroides (13.6 %) were predominant after weaning. Similar to pre-weaning, northern European countries were associated with a higher proportion of bifidobacteria in the infant gut microbiota while higher levels of Bacteroides and lactobacilli characterized southern European countries. As before weaning, the initial feeding method influenced the Clostridium leptum group and Clostridium difficile+Clostridium perfringens species, and bifidobacteria still dominated the faeces of initially breast-fed infants. Formula-fed babies presented significantly higher proportions of Bacteroides and the C. coccoides group. The mode of birth influenced changes in the proportions of bacteroides and atopobium. Although there were significant differences in the mean weaning age between countries, this was not related to the populations of bifidobacteria or bacteroides. Thus, although the faecal microbiota of infants after first complementary foods was different to that before weaning commenced, many of the initial influences on microbiota composition were still evident.

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    • "The transition from a milk-based to a solids-based diet exposes infants to novel non-digestible plant carbohydrates, animal protein, and fats providing new substrates for the survival and dominance of bacterial species not supported by breastmilk and/or formula (Parrett and Edwards, 1997; Fallani et al., 2011). Introduction of solid foods has been associated with increased populations of Bacteroides (Koenig et al., 2011) and decreased populations of bifidobacteria , enterobacteria, and some Clostridium species (Fallani et al., 2011). In older children and adults, dietary composition, particularly the balance between carbohydrates and protein/animal fat, is associated with microbiome changes with greater Bacteroides abundance associated with diets higher in protein and animal fat and Prevotella abundance associated with greater carbohydrate intake relative to meat and dairy (De Filippo et al., 2010; Wu et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The development of the infant intestinal microbiome in response to dietary and other exposures may shape long-term metabolic and immune function. We examined differences in the community structure and function of the intestinal microbiome between four feeding groups, exclusively breastfed infants before introduction of solid foods (EBF), non-exclusively breastfed infants before introduction of solid foods (non-EBF), EBF infants after introduction of solid foods (EBF+S), and non-EBF infants after introduction of solid foods (non-EBF+S), and tested whether out-of-home daycare attendance was associated with differences in relative abundance of gut bacteria. Bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was performed on 49 stool samples collected longitudinally from a cohort of 9 infants (5 male, 4 female). PICRUSt metabolic inference analysis was used to identify metabolic impacts of feeding practices on the infant gut microbiome. Sequencing data identified significant differences across groups defined by feeding and daycare attendance. Non-EBF and daycare-attending infants had higher diversity and species richness than EBF and non-daycare attending infants. The gut microbiome of EBF infants showed increased proportions of Bifidobacterium and lower abundance of Bacteroidetes and Clostridiales than non-EBF infants. PICRUSt analysis indicated that introduction of solid foods had a marginal impact on the microbiome of EBF infants (24 enzymes overrepresented in EBF+S infants). In contrast, over 200 bacterial gene categories were overrepresented in non-EBF+S compared to non-EBF infants including several bacterial methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) involved in signal transduction. The identified differences between EBF and non-EBF infants suggest that breast milk may provide the gut microbiome with a greater plasticity (despite having a lower phylogenetic diversity) that eases the transition into solid foods.
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 02/2015; 5. DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2015.00003 · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    • "Bifidobacterium breve B.adolescentis B.longum B.bifidum and B.fragilis Mackie et al. 1999 Harmsen et al.2000 Fanaro et al. 2003 Fallani et al.2011 Penders et al.2006 "
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    ABSTRACT: There is rapid increase in the awareness of composition of microbiota in the gut and its pathogenecity and functionality.The sterile gut of the infant at birth is colonized by diverse microbiota depending upon the immediate environment.Feeding methods has an influence on the development of gut microbiota of the infants as the feeds,feeding equipment and the personnel handling the feeds form the extrinsic factors.Breast milk, being the natural feed for the infant, promotes the growth of more symbiotic bacteria and provide protection against autoimmune disorders and allergic reactions.Whereas feeding methods other than exclusive breast feeding promotes the development of microbiota which can arouse pathological effects with slight disturbances in the gut environment predisposing the infant to many illnesses which may be fatal.
    IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 12/2014; 13(12):2279-861. DOI:10.9790/0853-131242125 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    • "3.1. Breastfeeding regulates the composition of the gut microbiota in human infants, and provides protection against infectious, allergic and inflammatory diseases There is considerable evidence from epidemiological studies that the composition of the gut microbiota differs significantly between breast-fed and formula-fed infants [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71]. However, the specific components in breast milk that regulate the microbiota, including SIgA, have not systematically been investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: Secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies in the intestinal tract form the first line of antigen-specific immune defense, preventing access of pathogens as well as commensal microbes to the body proper. SIgA is transported into external secretions by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Evidence is reported here that the gut microbiota regulates production of SIgA and pIgR, which act together to regulate the composition and activity of the microbiota. SIgA in the intestinal mucus layer helps to maintain spatial segregation between the microbiota and the epithelial surface without compromising the metabolic activity of the microbes. Products shed by members of the microbial community promote production of SIgA and pIgR by activating pattern recognition receptors on host epithelial and immune cells. Maternal SIgA in breast milk provides protection to newborn mammals until the developing intestinal immune system begins to produce its own SIgA. Disruption of the SIgA-pIgR-microbial triad can increase the risk of infectious, allergic and inflammatory diseases of the intestine.
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