Article

Determinants of the human infant intestinal microbiota after the introduction of first complementary foods in infant samples from five European centres.

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Unité d'Écologie et de Physiologie du Système Digestif, Jouy en Josas, France.
Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.06). 02/2011; 157(Pt 5):1385-92. DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.042143-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although it is well established that early infant feeding has a major influence on the establishment of the gut microbiota, very little is understood about how the introduction of first solid food influences the colonization process. This study aimed to determine the impact of weaning on the faecal microbiota composition of infants from five European countries (Sweden, Scotland, Germany, Italy and Spain) which have different lifestyle characteristics and infant feeding practices. Faecal samples were collected from 605 infants approximately 4 weeks after the introduction of first solid foods and the results were compared with the same infants before weaning (6 weeks of age) to investigate the association with determining factors such as geographical origin, mode of delivery, previous feeding method and age of weaning. Samples were analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry using a panel of 10 rRNA targeted group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes. The genus Bifidobacterium (36.5 % average proportion of total detectable bacteria), Clostridium coccoides group (14 %) and Bacteroides (13.6 %) were predominant after weaning. Similar to pre-weaning, northern European countries were associated with a higher proportion of bifidobacteria in the infant gut microbiota while higher levels of Bacteroides and lactobacilli characterized southern European countries. As before weaning, the initial feeding method influenced the Clostridium leptum group and Clostridium difficile+Clostridium perfringens species, and bifidobacteria still dominated the faeces of initially breast-fed infants. Formula-fed babies presented significantly higher proportions of Bacteroides and the C. coccoides group. The mode of birth influenced changes in the proportions of bacteroides and atopobium. Although there were significant differences in the mean weaning age between countries, this was not related to the populations of bifidobacteria or bacteroides. Thus, although the faecal microbiota of infants after first complementary foods was different to that before weaning commenced, many of the initial influences on microbiota composition were still evident.

2 Bookmarks
 · 
144 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The intestinal microbiome is defined as the assembly of genomes from microorganisms inhabiting the gut. This microbial ecosystem regulates important functions of the host and its correct composition and functionality is essential for a "healthy status." Metagenomic studies have highlighted variations of the intestinal microbiota as a function of age and diet. Colonization of the infant gut starts at birth and is influenced by feeding habits (formula vs. breast-feeding), birth mode and antibiotic exposure. The intestinal microbiota of full-term vaginally delivered breast-fed infants is considered the gold-standard, representing the reference for studies of alterations in other pediatric populations. At 2-3 years of age, the intestinal microbiota reaches a composition similar to adults, remaining without noticeable variations until senescence, when microbial instability and changes reappear. Here we summarize the current knowledge on intestinal microbiota alterations at extreme stages of life and tools for designing differentiated nutritional strategies by the use of probiotics, prebiotics and specific nutrients in order to restore a balanced microbiota and to improve immune and nutritional status.
    Frontiers in Genetics 01/2014; 5:406. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00406
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The distal gut harbors ∼1013 bacteria, representing the most densely populated ecosystem known. The functional diversity expressed by these communities is enormous and relatively unexplored. The past decade of research has unveiled the profound influence the resident microbial populations bestow to host immunity and metabolism. The evolution of these communities from birth generates a highly adapted and highly personalized microbiota that is stable in healthy individuals. Immune homeostasis is achieved and maintained in part due to the extensive interplay between the gut microbiota and host colonic immune system. Imbalances of gut microbiota may lead to a number of pathologies such as obesity, type I and type II diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflamm- aging/immunosenscence in the elderly. In depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control homeostasis and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is an important step in our ability to reliably modulate the gut microbiota with positive clinical outcomes. The potential of microbiome-based therapeutics to treat epidemic human disease is of great interest. New therapeutic paradigms including second-generation personalized probiotics, prebiotics, narrow spectrum antibiotic treatment and fecal microbiome transplantation may provide safer and natural alternatives to traditional clinical interventions for chronic diseases. This review discusses host-microbiota homeostasis, consequences of its perturbation, and the associated challenges in therapeutic developments that lie ahead.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 10/2014; 179(3). DOI:10.1111/cei.12474 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The development of the infant intestinal microbiome in response to dietary and other exposures may shape long-term metabolic and immune function. We examined differences in the community structure and function of the intestinal microbiome between four feeding groups, exclusively breastfed infants before introduction of solid foods (EBF), non-exclusively breastfed infants before introduction of solid foods (non-EBF), EBF infants after introduction of solid foods (EBF+S), and non-EBF infants after introduction of solid foods (non-EBF+S), and tested whether out-of-home daycare attendance was associated with differences in relative abundance of gut bacteria. Bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was performed on 49 stool samples collected longitudinally from a cohort of 9 infants (5 male, 4 female). PICRUSt metabolic inference analysis was used to identify metabolic impacts of feeding practices on the infant gut microbiome. Sequencing data identified significant differences across groups defined by feeding and daycare attendance. Non-EBF and daycare-attending infants had higher diversity and species richness than EBF and non-daycare attending infants. The gut microbiome of EBF infants showed increased proportions of Bifidobacterium and lower abundance of Bacteroidetes and Clostridiales than non-EBF infants. PICRUSt analysis indicated that introduction of solid foods had a marginal impact on the microbiome of EBF infants (24 enzymes overrepresented in EBF+S infants). In contrast, over 200 bacterial gene categories were overrepresented in non-EBF+S compared to non-EBF infants including several bacterial methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) involved in signal transduction. The identified differences between EBF and non-EBF infants suggest that breast milk may provide the gut microbiome with a greater plasticity (despite having a lower phylogenetic diversity) that eases the transition into solid foods.
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 02/2015; 5. DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2015.00003 · 2.62 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
92 Downloads
Available from
May 27, 2014