The embryologic basis for the anatomy of the cerebral vasculature related to arteriovenous malformations.
ABSTRACT A detailed understanding of vascular anatomy is essential to facilitate appropriate decision-making by clinicians responsible for treating arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of the brain and dura. This work reviews the embryologic development of the cerebral vasculature, including the dural venous sinuses, with a focus on the relevant angioarchitecture. There is little doubt that dural AVM are acquired lesions; however, conflicting evidence exists regarding the pathophysiology of brain AVM. Patients described in this review provide support for both of the proposed mechanisms for the development of brain AVM (post-natal development compared to embryologic origin). Further work is required to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of these lesions.
- SourceAvailable from: Marcus A Stoodley02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0075-1
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ABSTRACT: It is known that the brain can compensate for deficits induced by acquired and developmental lesions through functional reorganization of the remaining parenchyma. Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) usually appear prenatally before a functional regional organization of the brain is fully established and patients generally do not present with motor deficits even when the AVM is located in the primary motor area indicating the redistribution of functions in cortical areas that are not pathologically altered. Here we present reorganization of the motor cortex in a patient with a large AVM involving most of the left parietal lobe and the paramedian part of the left precentral gyrus that is responsible for controlling the muscles of the lower limbs. Functional MRI showed that movements of both the right and left feet activated only the primary motor cortex in the right hemisphere, while there was no activation in the left motor cortex. This suggests that complete ipsilateral control over the movements of the right foot had been established in this patient. A reconstruction of the corticospinal tract using diffusion tensor imaging showed a near-complete absence of corticospinal fibers from the part of the left precentral gyrus affected by the AVM. From this clinical presentation it can be concluded that full compensation of motor deficits had occurred by redistributing function to the corresponding motor area of the contralateral hemisphere.Translational Neuroscience. 06/2013; 4(2):269-272.
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ABSTRACT: Radionuclides of rare earth elements are gaining importance as emerging therapeutic agents in nuclear medicine. β(-)-particle emitter 142Pr [T (1/2) = 19.12 h, E(-)β = 2.162 MeV (96.3%), Eγ = 1575 keV (3.7%)] is one of the praseodymium-141 (100% abundant) radioisotopes. Production routes and therapy aspects of 142Pr will be reviewed in this paper. However, 142Pr produces via 141Pr(n, γ) 142Pr reaction by irradiation in a low-fluence reactor; 142Pr cyclotron produced, could be achievable. 142Pr due to its high β(-)-emission and low specific gamma γ-emission could not only be a therapeutic radionuclide, but also a suitable radionuclide in order for biodistribution studies. Internal radiotherapy using 142Pr can be classified into two sub-categories: (1) unsealed source therapy (UST), (2) brachytherapy. UST via 142Pr-HA and 142Pr-DTPA in order for radiosynovectomy have been proposed. In addition, 142Pr Glass seeds and 142Pr microspheres have been utilized for interstitial brachytherapy of prostate cancer and intraarterial brachytherapy of arteriovenous malformation, respectively.Annals of Nuclear Medicine 07/2011; 25(8):529-35. · 1.41 Impact Factor