Article

The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R). A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults

Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.06). 02/2011; 41(12):1635-45. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-011-1191-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75 adults with ASD and 197 comparison cases. Also, a subset completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Three out of four subscales had high internal consistency. Sensitivity was 91% and specificity was 93%. The ASD subjects had significantly higher mean scores on all subscales. ASD females had higher scores than ASD males on the sensory motor subscale, a dimension not included in the AQ. RAADS-R showed promising test re-test reliability.

Full-text

Available from: Susanne Bejerot, Feb 17, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
127 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, yet the majority of studies report effects that are either very weak, inconsistent across studies, or explain results incompletely. Here we apply multiple analytical approaches to resting-state BOLD-fMRI data at the whole-brain level. Neurotypical and high-functioning adults with autism displayed very similar patterns and strengths of resting-state connectivity. We found only limited evidence in autism for abnormal resting-state connectivity at the regional level and no evidence for altered connectivity at the whole-brain level. Regional abnormalities in functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder were primarily in the frontal and temporal cortices. Within these regions, functional connectivity with other brain regions was almost exclusively lower in the autism group. Further examination showed that even small amounts of head motion during scanning have large effects on functional connectivity measures and must be controlled carefully. Consequently, we suggest caution in the interpretation of apparent positive findings until all possible confounding effects can be ruled out. Additionally, we do not rule out the possibility that abnormal connectivity in autism is evident at the microstructural synaptic level, which may not be reflected sensitively in hemodynamic changes measured with BOLD-fMRI.
    Cerebral Cortex 02/2013; DOI:10.1093/cercor/bht040 · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be difficult to distinguish from other psychiatric disorders. The clinical assessment of ASD is lengthy, and has to be performed by a specialized clinician. Therefore, a screening instrument to aid in the identification of patients who may have undiagnosed ASD should be useful. The purpose of this study was to develop such a screening instrument. Based on the 80 item Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), we developed a 14 item self-evaluation questionnaire, the RAADS-14 Screen. In total, 135 adults with ASD and 508 psychiatric controls completed the abridged version of the RAADS-R. The RAADS-14 Screen score was significantly higher in the ASD group than in the control samples, with a median score of 32 for ASD, 15 for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and 11 for other psychiatric disorders (P < 0.001). A cut-off score of 14 or above reached a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 46 to 64%. A factor analysis identified three factors consistent with mentalizing deficits, social anxiety, and sensory reactivity relevant for the diagnosis of ASD. The psychometric properties of RAADS-14 Screen were shown to be satisfactory. The results of this study indicate that RAADS-14 Screen is a promising measure in screening for ASD in adult psychiatric outpatients.
    Molecular Autism 12/2013; 4(1):49. DOI:10.1186/2040-2392-4-49 · 5.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to co-occurring symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, neurological soft signs and motor problems have not yet been disclosed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD).In this study thirteen adults with ASD and ten matched neurotypical controls underwent PET. The scores of rating scales for autistic traits, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and neurological soft signs were included in a factorial analysis and correlated with rCBF. Factors corresponding to “autistic/ADHD traits”, “sensory-motor integration” and “Intelligence/Motor sequencing” were identified. In the ASD group, positive correlations with CBF were found for “autistic/ADHD traits” in caudate bilaterally and the inferior parietal lobule, for “sensory-motor integration” in parieto-occipital cortex and for “Intelligence/Motor sequencing” in the right temporal cortex. Notably, CBF in the left thalamus correlated negatively with all three factors. Autistic traits and ADHD symptoms were associated with shared neural substrates. The correlation between “autistic/ADHD traits” and rCBF in the caudate is possibly associated with the executive impairments and ritualistic/stereotyped behaviors apparent in ASD. Furthermore, sensory-motor deficits were correlated with rCBF in the occipital visual cortex, involved in atypical visual perception in ASD. Various behavioral and neurological symptoms are suggested to converge into the ASD phenotype.
    Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 05/2013; 7(5):566–578. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2012.12.008 · 2.96 Impact Factor