Modelling the isometric force response to multiple pulse stimuli in locust skeletal muscle
Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Hampshire, UK.Biological Cybernetics (Impact Factor: 1.71). 02/2011; 104(1-2):121-36. DOI: 10.1007/s00422-011-0423-0
An improved model of locust skeletal muscle will inform on the general behaviour of invertebrate and mammalian muscle with the eventual aim of improving biomedical models of human muscles, embracing prosthetic construction and muscle therapy. In this article, the isometric response of the locust hind leg extensor muscle to input pulse trains is investigated. Experimental data was collected by stimulating the muscle directly and measuring the force at the tibia. The responses to constant frequency stimulus trains of various frequencies and number of pulses were decomposed into the response to each individual stimulus. Each individual pulse response was then fitted to a model, it being assumed that the response to each pulse could be approximated as an impulse response and was linear, no assumption were made about the model order. When the interpulse frequency (IPF) was low and the number of pulses in the train small, a second-order model provided a good fit to each pulse. For moderate IPF or for long pulse trains a linear third-order model provided a better fit to the response to each pulse. The fit using a second-order model deteriorated with increasing IPF. When the input comprised higher IPFs with a large number of pulses the assumptions that the response was linear could not be confirmed. A generalised model is also presented. This model is second-order, and contains two nonlinear terms. The model is able to capture the force response to a range of inputs. This includes cases where the input comprised of higher frequency pulse trains and the assumption of quasi-linear behaviour could not be confirmed.
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ABSTRACT: Muscle models are an important tool in the development of new rehabilitation and diagnostic techniques. Many models have been proposed in the past, but little work has been done on comparing the performance of models. In this paper, seven models that describe the isometric force response to pulse train inputs are investigated. Five of the models are from the literature while two new models are also presented. Models are compared in terms of their ability to fit to isometric force data, using Akaike's and Bayesian information criteria and by examining the ability of each model to describe the underlying behaviour in response to individual pulses. Experimental data were collected by stimulating the locust extensor tibia muscle and measuring the force generated at the tibia. Parameters in each model were estimated by minimising the error between the modelled and actual force response for a set of training data. A separate set of test data, which included physiological kick-type data, was used to assess the models. It was found that a linear model performed the worst whereas a new model was found to perform the best. The parameter sensitivity of this new model was investigated using a one-at-a-time approach, and it found that the force response is not particularly sensitive to changes in any parameter.Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology 07/2011; 11(3-4):519-32. DOI:10.1007/s10237-011-0330-2 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The isometric force response of the locust hind leg extensor tibia muscle to stimulation of a slow extensor tibia motor neuron is experimentally investigated, and a mathematical model describing the response presented. The measured force response was modelled by considering the ability of an existing model, developed to describe the response to the stimulation of a fast extensor tibia motor neuron and to also model the response to slow motor neuron stimulation. It is found that despite large differences in the force response to slow and fast motor neuron stimulation, which could be accounted for by the differing physiology of the fibres they innervate, the model is able to describe the response to both fast and slow motor neuron stimulation. Thus, the presented model provides a potentially generally applicable, robust, simple model to describe the isometric force response of a range of muscles.Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology 08/2012; 12(3). DOI:10.1007/s10237-012-0427-2 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: to produce forces and torques necessary to move the limbs in a systematic way, and to maintain the body in a static position. These two functions are performed by the contribution of specialized motor units, i.e. motoneurons driving sets of specialized muscle fibres. With reference to their overall contraction and metabolic properties they are called fast and slow muscle fibres and can be found ubiquitously in skeletal muscles. Both fibre types are active during stepping, but only the slow ones maintain the posture of the body. From these findings, the general hypothesis on a functional segregation between both fibre types and their neuronal control has arisen. Earlier muscle models did not fully take this aspect into account. They either focused on certain aspects of muscular function or were developed to describe specific behaviours only. By contrast, our neuro-mechanical model is more general as it allows functionally to differentiate between static and dynamic aspects of movement control. It does so by including both muscle fibre types and separate motoneuron drives. Our model helps to gain a deeper insight into how the nervous system might combine neuronal control of locomotion and posture. It predicts that (1) positioning the leg at a specific retraction angle in steady state is most likely due to the extent of recruitment of slow muscle fibres and not to the force developed in the individual fibres of the antagonistic muscles; (2) the fast muscle fibres of antagonistic muscles contract alternately during stepping, while co-contraction of the slow muscle fibres takes place during steady state; (3) there are several possible ways of transition between movement and steady state of the leg achieved by varying the time course of recruitment of the fibres in the participating muscles.PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e78247. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078247 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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