A Large Mutational Study in Pachyonychia Congenita

Division of Molecular Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology (Impact Factor: 7.22). 02/2011; 131(5):1018-24. DOI: 10.1038/jid.2011.20
Source: PubMed


Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare autosomal dominant skin disorder characterized predominantly by nail dystrophy and painful palmoplantar keratoderma. Additional clinical features include oral leukokeratosis, follicular keratosis, and cysts (steatocysts and pilosebaceous cysts). PC is due to heterozygous mutations in one of four keratin genes, namely, KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT16, or KRT17. Here, we report genetic analysis of 90 new families with PC in which we identified mutations in KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT16, or KRT17, thereby confirming their clinical diagnosis. A total of 21 previously unreported and 22 known mutations were found. Approximately half of the kindreds had mutations in KRT6A (52%), 28% had mutations in KRT16, 17% in KRT17, and 3% of families had mutations in KRT6B. Most of the mutations were heterozygous missense or small in-frame insertion/deletion mutations occurring within one of the helix boundary motif regions of the keratin polypeptide. More unusual mutations included heterozygous splice site mutations, nonsense mutations, and a 1-bp insertion mutation, leading to a frameshift and premature termination codon. This study, together with previously reported mutations, identifies mutation hotspot codons that may be useful in the development of personalized medicine for PC.

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    • "Historically, K6a and K16 mutations have been associated with PC-1 (Jadassohn-Lewandowski type) and K6b and K17 mutations with PC-2 (Jackson-Lawler type) (Smith et al., 2005). Recently, data from the International PC Research Registry (IPCRR) have revealed considerable phenotypic overlap between these subtypes; therefore, a new molecular classification linking the mutant gene and clinical subtype has been adopted (PC-6a, PC-16, and so on, see Wilson et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare, autosomal dominant keratin disorder caused by mutations in four genes (KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT16, or KRT17). The International PC Research Registry is a database with information on patients' symptoms as well as genotypes. We sought to describe the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms and to investigate possible genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with two types of K16 mutations, p.Asn125 and p.Arg127, causing the PC-16 subtype of PC. We found that clinical symptoms depended on the type of amino-acid substitution. Patients with p.Asn125Asp and p.Arg127Pro mutations exhibited more severe disease than patients carrying p.Asn125Ser and p.Arg127Cys mutations in terms of age of onset of symptoms, extent of nail involvement, and impact on daily quality of life. We speculate that amino-acid substitutions causing larger, more disruptive changes to the K16 protein structure, such as a change in amino-acid charge in the p.Asn125Asp mutation or a bulky proline substitution in the p.Arg127Pro mutation, may also lead to more severe disease phenotypes. The variation in phenotypes seen with different substitutions at the same mutation site suggests a genotype-phenotype correlation. Knowledge of the exact gene defect is likely to assist in predicting disease prognosis and clinical management.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 12/2010; 131(5):1025-8. DOI:10.1038/jid.2010.373 · 7.22 Impact Factor
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    • "Detailed clinical data from a large PC case series will be published elsewhere (Eliason et al.). Mutations in at least four keratin (KRT) genes, including KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT16, and KRT17, are responsible for the observed symptoms (see Wilson et al., 2011). These mutations, which often include singlenucleotide (nt) substitutions, cluster in the boundary motifs at the ends of the keratin rod domain. "
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    ABSTRACT: RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that results in specific gene inhibition at the mRNA level. The discovery that short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are selective, potent, and can largely avoid immune surveillance has resulted in keen interest to develop these inhibitors as therapeutics. A single nucleotide-specific siRNA (K6a_513a.12, also known as TD101) was recently evaluated in a phase 1b clinical trial for the rare skin disorder, pachyonychia congenita (PC). To develop a clinical trial molecular end point for this type of trial, methods were developed to: (1) isolate total RNA containing amplifiable mRNA from human skin and callus material; (2) quantitatively distinguish the single-nucleotide mutant mRNA from wild-type K6a mRNA in both patient-derived keratinocytes and patient callus; and (3) demonstrate that repeated siRNA treatment results in sustained inhibition of mutant K6a mRNA in patient-derived keratinocyte cultures. These methods allow noninvasive sampling and monitoring of gene expression from patient-collected shavings and may be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of RNAi-based therapeutics, including inhibitors that specifically target single-nucleotide mutations.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 12/2010; 131(5):1029-36. DOI:10.1038/jid.2010.372 · 7.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular characterization and assessment of therapeutic outcomes for inherited cutaneous disorders requires faithful preclinical models. In this study we report the establishment of two different skin-humanized pachyonychia congenita (PC) model systems, based on permanent engraftment of bioengineered skin equivalents generated from patient skin cells onto immunodeficient mice. Using keratinocytes and fibroblasts isolated from unaffected skin biopsies of two PC patients carrying the p.Asn171Lys mutation of the keratin 6a gene (KRT6A), we were able to regenerate PC-derived human skin that appeared phenotypically normal, but developed sustained PC features after the use of an acute hyperproliferative stimulus (i.e., tape stripping). In contrast, the use of keratinocytes from an affected area (i.e., plantar callus) from a different patient carrying the KRT6A mutation p.Asn171Asp led to a full recapitulation of the phenotype that included marked acanthosis and epidermal blistering after minor trauma. The ability to generate large numbers of PC skin-engrafted mice will enable the testing of novel pharmacological or gene-based therapies for this as yet untreatable disease.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 12/2010; 131(5):1053-60. DOI:10.1038/jid.2010.353 · 7.22 Impact Factor
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