Effector diversification within compartments of the Leptosphaeria maculans genome affected by Repeat-Induced Point mutations.

INRA-Bioger, UR1290, Avenue Lucien Brétignières, BP 01, Thiverval-Grignon F-78850, France.
Nature Communications (Impact Factor: 10.02). 02/2011; 2:202. DOI:10.1038/ncomms1189
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fungi are of primary ecological, biotechnological and economic importance. Many fundamental biological processes that are shared by animals and fungi are studied in fungi due to their experimental tractability. Many fungi are pathogens or mutualists and are model systems to analyse effector genes and their mechanisms of diversification. In this study, we report the genome sequence of the phytopathogenic ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans and characterize its repertoire of protein effectors. The L. maculans genome has an unusual bipartite structure with alternating distinct guanine and cytosine-equilibrated and adenine and thymine (AT)-rich blocks of homogenous nucleotide composition. The AT-rich blocks comprise one-third of the genome and contain effector genes and families of transposable elements, both of which are affected by repeat-induced point mutation, a fungal-specific genome defence mechanism. This genomic environment for effectors promotes rapid sequence diversification and underpins the evolutionary potential of the fungus to adapt rapidly to novel host-derived constraints.

0 0
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Quantitative resistance mediated by multiple genetic factors has been shown to increase the potential for durability of major resistance genes. This was demonstrated in the Leptosphaeria maculans/Brassica napus pathosystem in a five year recurrent selection field experiment on lines harboring the qualitative resistance gene Rlm6 combined or not with quantitative resistance. The quantitative resistance limited the size of the virulent isolate population. In this study we continued this recurrent selection experiment in the same way to examine whether the pathogen population could adapt and render the major gene ineffective in the longer term. The cultivars Eurol, with a susceptible background, and Darmor, with quantitative resistance, were used. We confirmed that the combination of qualitative and quantitative resistance is an effective approach for controlling the pathogen epidemics over time. This combination did not prevent isolates virulent against the major gene from amplifying in the long term but the quantitative resistance significantly delayed for five years the loss of effectiveness of the qualitative resistance and disease severity was maintained at a low level on the genotype with both types of resistance after the fungus population had adapted to the major gene. We also showed that diversity at the AvrLm6 virulence allele was comparable in isolates recovered after the recurrent selection on lines carrying either the major gene alone or in combination with quantitative resistance: a single repeat-induced point mutation and deletion events were observed in both situations. Breeding varieties which combine qualitative and quantitative resistance can effectively contribute to disease control by increasing the potential for durability of major resistance genes.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 01/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Monogenic plant resistance breakdown is a model for testing evolution in action in pathogens. As a rule, plant pathologists argue that virulence - the allele that allows pathogens to overcome resistance - is due to a new mutation at the avirulence locus within the native/endemic population that infects susceptible crops. In this article, we develop an alternative and neglected scenario where a given virulence pre-exists in a non-agricultural host and might be accidentally released or introduced on the matching resistant cultivar in the field. The main difference between the two scenarios is the divergence time expected between the avirulent and the virulent populations. As a consequence, population genetic approaches such as genome scans and approximate Bayesian computation methods allow explicit testing of the two scenarios by timing the divergence. This review then explores the fundamental implications of this alternative scenario for plant breeding, including the invasion of virulence or the evolution of more aggressive hybrids, and proposes concrete solutions to achieve a sustainable resistance.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 01/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: All species continuously evolve to adapt to changing environments. The genetic variation that fosters such adaptation is caused by a plethora of mechanisms, including meiotic recombination that generates novel allelic combinations in the progeny of two parental lineages. However, a considerable number of eukaryotic species, including many fungi, do not have an apparent sexual cycle and are consequently thought to be limited in their evolutionary potential. As such organisms are expected to have reduced capability to eliminate deleterious mutations, they are often considered as evolutionary dead ends. However, inspired by recent reports we argue that such organisms can be as persistent as organisms with conventional sexual cycles through the use of other mechanisms, such as genomic rearrangements, to foster adaptation.
    BioEssays 02/2014; · 5.42 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Sep 24, 2012