Etiology of meningitis among patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in Botswana.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. .
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 3.14). 02/2011; 30(7):620-2. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318210b51e
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This retrospective review evaluated records of cerebrospinal fluid samples between 2000 and 2008 at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Of the 7501 cerebrospinal fluid samples reviewed, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 125) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 60) were the most common bacteria cultured. There were also 1018 cryptococcal and 44 tuberculous meningitis cases. Antimicrobial susceptibilities are described. Public health interventions could decrease the burden of meningitis in Botswana.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Selon les directives classiques provenant des pays à revenu élevé, la tomodensitométrie (TDM) de la tête est indiquée avant une ponction lombaire (PL) pour l’évaluation d’une possible méningite chez les patients infectés par le VIH. Au Botswana, la méningite chez les patients infectés par le VIH est courante mais la TDM n’est pas souvent disponible. Objectif Développer une approche rationnelle fondée sur des preuves relative à l’utilisation de la TDM en cas d’évaluation d’urgence d’une possible méningite au sein d’une population à forte prévalence du VIH. Méthodes Le personnel du Centre d’Urgences (CU) de l’hôpital Princess Marina à Gaborone, Botswana, a examiné des prescriptions de TDM et de PL en cas de suspicion de méningite. Les auteurs se sont penchés sur les cas existants de TDM avant PL (la plupart provenant de pays à revenus élevés) et ont examiné l’épidémiologie des infections du système nerveux central en Afrique australe. Des directives provisoires ont été distribuées à des médecins et des infirmières de centres d’urgences et à des spécialistes dans d’autres services hospitaliers pour examen et commentaires avant finalisation. Résultat Les publications disponibles semblent indiquer qu’au Botswana, il serait possible de limiter fortement l’utilisation de la TDM de la tête avant une PL chez les patients séropositifs sans augmenter l’incidence ou le risque d’engagement cérébral. La directive comprend des scénarios dans lesquels une PL pourrait être indiquée en présence de signes neurologiques focaux et en l’absence d’une TDM, contrairement à ce que préconisent les directives classiques. Discussion L’applicabilité des directives classiques relatives à l’utilisation de la TDM dans des cas de suspicion de méningite dépend de l’épidémiologie et des ressources locales.
    06/2014; 4(2):76–82. DOI:10.1016/j.afjem.2013.07.004
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Little is known about the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) amongst bacterial pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), despite calls for continent-wide surveillance to inform empirical treatment guidelines. Methods: We searched PubMed and additional databases for susceptibility data of key pathogens for surveillance, published between 1990 and 2013. Extracted data were standardized to a prevalence of resistance in populations of isolates and reported by clinical syndrome, microorganism, relevant antimicrobial drugs and region. Results: We identified 2005 publications, of which 190 were analysed. Studies predominantly originated from east sSA (61%), were hospital based (60%), were from an urban setting (73%) and reported on isolates from patients with a febrile illness (42%). Quality procedures for susceptibility testing were described in <50% of studies. Median prevalence (MP) of resistance to chloramphenicol in Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from patients with a febrile illness, ranged between 31.0% and 94.2%, whilst MP of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins ranged between 0.0% and 46.5%. MP of resistance to nalidixic acid in Salmonella enterica Typhi ranged between 15.4% and 43.2%. The limited number of studies providing prevalence data on AMR in Gram-positive pathogens or in pathogens isolated from patients with a respiratory tract infection, meningitis, urinary tract infection or hospital-acquired infection suggested high prevalence of resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline and low prevalence to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Conclusions: Our results indicate high prevalence of AMR in clinical bacterial isolates to antimicrobial drugs commonly used in sSA. Enhanced approaches for AMR surveillance are needed to support empirical therapy in sSA.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 05/2014; 69(9). DOI:10.1093/jac/dku176 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptococcosis is reported in adults and is often acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated; however, its frequency in children is low. Based on the National Survey on Cryptococcosis conducted in Colombia, an epidemiological and clinical analysis was performed on cases of the disease observed in children less than 16 years old between 1993-2010. We found 41 affected children (2.6% prevalence) from the 1,578 surveys received. The country mean annual incidence rate was 0.017 cases/100,000 children under 16 years, while in Norte de Santander the incidence rate was 0.122 cases/100,000 (p < 0.0001). The average age of infected children was 8.4 and 58.5% were male. In 46.3% of cases, a risk factor was not identified, while 24.4% had AIDS. The most frequent clinical manifestations were headache (78.1%), fever (68.8%), nausea and vomiting (65.6%), confusion (50%) and meningeal signs (37.5%). Meningitis was the most frequent clinical presentation (87.8%). Amphotericin B was given to 93.5% of patients as an initial treatment. Positive microbiological identification was accomplished by India ink (94.7%), latex in cerebrospinal fluid (100%) and culture (89.5%). Out of 34 isolates studied, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (VNI 85.3%, VNII 8.8%) was isolated in 94.1% of cases and Cryptococcus gattii (VGII) was isolated in 5.9% of cases. These data are complemented by a literature review, which overall suggests that cryptococcosis in children is an unusual event worldwide.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 09/2014; 109(6):797-804. DOI:10.1590/0074-0276130537 · 1.57 Impact Factor


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May 20, 2014