The role of vanin-1 and oxidative stress-related pathways in distinguishing acute and chronic pediatric ITP.

Departments of Pathology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 02/2011; 117(17):4569-79. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-09-304931
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pediatric immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is usually self-limited. However, approximately 20% of children develop chronic ITP, which can be associated with significant morbidity because of long-term immunosuppression and splenectomy in refractory cases. To explore the molecular mechanism of chronic ITP compared with acute ITP, we studied 63 pediatric patients with ITP. Gene expression analysis of whole blood revealed distinct signatures for acute and chronic ITP. Oxidative stress-related pathways were among the most significant chronic ITP-associated pathways. Overexpression of VNN1, an oxidative stress sensor in epithelial cells, was most strongly associated with progression to chronic ITP. Studies of normal persons demonstrated VNN1 expression in a variety of blood cells. Exposure of blood mononuclear cells to oxidative stress inducers elicited dramatic up-regulation of VNN1 and down-regulation of PPARγ, indicating a role for VNN1 as a peripheral blood oxidative stress sensor. Assessment of redox state by tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated statistically significant lower glutathione ratios in patients with ITP versus healthy controls; lower glutathione ratios were also seen in untreated patients with ITP compared with recently treated patients. Our work demonstrates distinct patterns of gene expression in acute and chronic ITP and implicates oxidative stress pathways in the pathogenesis of chronic pediatric ITP.

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    ABSTRACT: High blood pressure (BP) is the most common cardiovascular risk factor worldwide and a major contributor to heart disease and stroke. We previously discovered a BP-associated missense SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism)-rs2272996-in the gene encoding vanin-1, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane pantetheinase. In the present study, we first replicated the association of rs2272996 and BP traits with a total sample size of nearly 30,000 individuals from the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network (COGENT) of African Americans (P = 0.01). This association was further validated using patient plasma samples; we observed that the N131S mutation is associated with significantly lower plasma vanin-1 protein levels. We observed that the N131S vanin-1 is subjected to rapid endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) as the underlying mechanism for its reduction. Using HEK293 cells stably expressing vanin-1 variants, we showed that N131S vanin-1 was degraded significantly faster than wild type (WT) vanin-1. Consequently, there were only minimal quantities of variant vanin-1 present on the plasma membrane and greatly reduced pantetheinase activity. Application of MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, resulted in accumulation of ubiquitinated variant protein. A further experiment demonstrated that atenolol and diltiazem, two current drugs for treating hypertension, reduce the vanin-1 protein level. Our study provides strong biological evidence for the association of the identified SNP with BP and suggests that vanin-1 misfolding and degradation are the underlying molecular mechanism.
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress results from either overproduction of free radicals or insufficiency of several anti-oxidant defense systems. It leads to oxidation of main cellular macromolecules and a resultant molecular dysfunction. Thyroid hormones regulate oxidative metabolism and, thus, play a role in free radical production. Studies evaluating oxidative stress in patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism have been encountered in recent years; however, oxidative status in patients with euthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) was not investigated previously. Thirty-five subjects with euthyroid AIT and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum oxidative status was determined by the measurement of total anti-oxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), and oxidized-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels. Serum TAS levels were significantly lower (p < 0.001), while serum TOS levels and IMA levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001 and p = 0.020, respectively) in patients compared to controls. In both groups, ox-LDL levels were similar (p = 0.608). Serum TAS levels were negatively correlated with anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) levels (rho = -0.415, p = 0.001 and rho = -0.484, p < 0.001, respectively). Serum TOS was positively correlated with anti-TG levels (rho = 0.547, p < 0.001). Further, TAS was positively correlated with free T4 levels (r = 0.279, p = 0.043). No correlation was observed between thyrotropin, free T3 levels, and TOS and TAS levels. These results suggest that oxidants are increased, and anti-oxidants are decreased in patients with euthyroid AIT, and oxidative/anti-oxidative balance is shifted to the oxidative side. Increased oxidative stress might have a role in thyroid autoimmunity.
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    ABSTRACT: As the involvement of oxidative stress (OS) in autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AITP) has been reported, a fast and rapid test for the reliable measurement of OS and antioxidant capacities (AOCs) might be a useful tool in extending current diagnostic possibilities. The free oxygen radical test (FORT) and free oxygen radical defence (FORD) assay (Callegari, Italy) are easy to perform and reliable, with results available within 15 minutes. Thirty-seven AITP patients and 37 matched healthy individuals were included in this study. All participants responded to a standard questionnaire provided by these assays. Female patients with AITP were observed to demonstrate significantly higher OS in comparison to female controls (P = 0.0027) and male AITP patients (P = 0.0018). The AOCs were not reduced in patients with AITP (P = 0.7648). Correlation of OS with platelet count identified a weak positive correlation (P = 0.0327, Spearman R = 0.4672). The questionnaire revealed that ITP patients in comparison to healthy controls are more stressed, feel exhausted and fatigued, and eat a healthier diet. In conclusion, OS is predominant in female but not in male patients with AITP suggesting gender-specific differences in the pathomechanisms of AITP. Identification of patients with high levels of OS might be beneficial in the management of AITP.
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