Neurobehavioral function is impaired in children with all severities of sleep disordered breathing
ABSTRACT Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common in children and ranges in severity from primary snoring (PS), to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study investigated everyday function (behavior, attention, executive skills) in children with varying degrees of SDB and control children with no history of SDB recruited from the community.
One hundred thirty-six children aged 7-12 were studied. Routine overnight polysomnography (PSG) classified children into 4 groups: PS (n=59), mild OSAS (n=24), moderate/severe OSAS (n=18), and controls (n=35). Behavioral function and behavioral aspects of attention and executive function were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF).
Children with all severities of SDB had significantly higher rates of total, internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems compared to control children. Increased rates of behavioral executive dysfunction were also found across the SDB spectrum.
Our findings suggest that behavioral, attention, and executive function difficulties are present in children with PS as well as OSAS. These results have implications for the treatment of milder forms of SDB, particularly PS, which is commonly viewed as benign.
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ABSTRACT: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common in children and describes a continuum of nocturnal respiratory disturbance from primary snoring (PS) to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Historically, PS has been considered benign, however there is growing evidence that children with PS exhibit cognitive and behavioural deficits equivalent to children with OSA. There are two popular mechanistic theories linking SDB with daytime morbidity: hypoxic insult to the developing brain; and sleep disruption due to repeated arousals. These theories apply well to OSA, but children with PS experience neither hypoxia nor increased arousals when compared to non snoring controls. So what are we missing? This review summarises the literature examining daytime morbidity in children with PS and discusses the current debates surrounding this relationship. Specifically, questions exist as to the sensitivity of our standard assessment techniques to measure subtle hypoxia and arousal. There is also a suggestion that the association between PS and daytime morbidity may not be mediated by nocturnal respiratory disturbance at all, but by a number of other comorbid, but perhaps unrelated factors. As approximately 70% of children with SDB are diagnosed with PS, but are rarely treated, a paradigm shift in the investigation of PS may be required.Sleep Medicine Reviews 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.06.009 · 9.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults has been associated with hypertension, low baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), a delayed heart rate response to changing blood pressure (heart period delay [HPD]), and increased blood pressure variability (BPV). Poor BRS may contribute to hypertension by impairing the control of blood pressure (BP), with increased BPV and HPD. Although children with OSA have elevated BP, there are scant data on BRS, BPV, or HPD in this group. METHODS: 105 children ages 7-12years referred for assessment of OSA and 36 nonsnoring controls were studied. Overnight polysomnography (PSG) was performed with continuous BP monitoring. Subjects were assigned to groups according to their obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI): primary snoring (PS) (OAHI ⩽1event/h), mild OSA (OAHI>1-⩽5events/h) and moderate/severe (MS) OSA (OAHI>5events/h). BRS and HPD were calculated using cross spectral analysis and BPV using power spectral analysis. RESULTS: Subjects with OSA had significantly lower BRS (p<.05 for both) and a longer HPD (PS and MS OSA, p<.01; mild OSA, p<.05) response to spontaneous BP changes compared with controls. In all frequencies of BPV, the MS group had higher power compared with the control and PS groups (low frequency [LF], p<.05; high frequency [HF], p<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates reduced BRS, longer HPD, and increased BPV in subjects with OSA compared to controls. This finding suggests that children with OSA have altered baroreflex function. Longitudinal studies are required to ascertain if this dampening of the normal baroreflex response can be reversed with treatment.Sleep Medicine 06/2013; 14(9). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2013.01.015 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A higher incidence of depressive disorders and symptoms has been suggested among children suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Yet, the extent to which OSA is related to increased depression is unclear. To evaluate (a) the relationship between depressive symptoms and OSA in pediatric populations, and (b) the efficacy of adenotonsillectomy (AT) for decreasing depressive symptoms among children with OSA. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms and OSA, and the efficacy of AT for decreasing depressive symptoms. Studies reporting depressive symptoms of children with OSA through January 2013 were included. Eleven studies assessed depressive symptoms in both children diagnosed with OSA (n = 894) and a comparison group (n = 1,096). A medium relationship was found between depressive symptoms and OSA (Hedges' g = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.64; p = 0.0005). Addressing the second question, 9 studies (n = 379 children) examined depressive symptoms pre- and post-AT. A medium improvement in depressive symptoms was found at follow-up (Hedge's g = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20-0.62; p ≤ 0.001). Our findings suggest that depressive symptoms are higher among children with OSA. Therefore, patients with depressive symptomatology should receive screening for sleep disordered breathing. Treatment of OSA with AT might decrease clinical symptoms of depression, reduce pharmacotherapy, improve sleep patterns, and promote better health. Yilmaz E; Sedky K; Bennett DS. The relationship between depressive symptoms and obstructive sleep apnea in pediatric populations: a meta-analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(11):1213-1220.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2013; 9(11):1213-1220. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.3178 · 2.83 Impact Factor