Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common in children and ranges in severity from primary snoring (PS), to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study investigated everyday function (behavior, attention, executive skills) in children with varying degrees of SDB and control children with no history of SDB recruited from the community.
One hundred thirty-six children aged 7-12 were studied. Routine overnight polysomnography (PSG) classified children into 4 groups: PS (n=59), mild OSAS (n=24), moderate/severe OSAS (n=18), and controls (n=35). Behavioral function and behavioral aspects of attention and executive function were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF).
Children with all severities of SDB had significantly higher rates of total, internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems compared to control children. Increased rates of behavioral executive dysfunction were also found across the SDB spectrum.
Our findings suggest that behavioral, attention, and executive function difficulties are present in children with PS as well as OSAS. These results have implications for the treatment of milder forms of SDB, particularly PS, which is commonly viewed as benign.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common in children and describes a continuum of nocturnal respiratory disturbance from primary snoring (PS) to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Historically, PS has been considered benign, however there is growing evidence that children with PS exhibit cognitive and behavioural deficits equivalent to children with OSA. There are two popular mechanistic theories linking SDB with daytime morbidity: hypoxic insult to the developing brain; and sleep disruption due to repeated arousals. These theories apply well to OSA, but children with PS experience neither hypoxia nor increased arousals when compared to non snoring controls. So what are we missing? This review summarises the literature examining daytime morbidity in children with PS and discusses the current debates surrounding this relationship. Specifically, questions exist as to the sensitivity of our standard assessment techniques to measure subtle hypoxia and arousal. There is also a suggestion that the association between PS and daytime morbidity may not be mediated by nocturnal respiratory disturbance at all, but by a number of other comorbid, but perhaps unrelated factors. As approximately 70% of children with SDB are diagnosed with PS, but are rarely treated, a paradigm shift in the investigation of PS may be required.
Sleep Medicine Reviews 07/2014; 18(6). DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.06.009 · 8.51 Impact Factor
"There are over 400 peer-reviewed publications supporting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the BRIEF. Furthermore, it has been translated into over 50 languages and dialects and is used on six continents (e.g., Bourke et al., 2011; Egeland & Fallmyr, 2010; Roy et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) is a rating scale designed to assess executive functions in everyday life that is widely used in school and clinical settings and in research studies. It has been recently suggested, however, that the limited geographic stratification of the standardization sample renders the measure overly sensitive. We evaluated this hypothesis by examining BRIEF scores across studies of typically developing children and adolescents. Thirty-nine studies were identified that included at least one of three possible index scores. Mean scores across studies were (a) within one to two T-score units from the standardization sample mean of 50, (b) tended to be slightly lower than 50, and (c) were unrelated to geographic location (US Census regions or internationally). These findings refute recent claims that the BRIEF is overly sensitive and further add to the large body of literature supporting the validity of the measure.
"Study name Statistics for each study Sample size Hedges' g and 95% CI Hedges' g LL UL Variance p-value OSA group PS group Beebe et al., 2010 Bourke et al., 2011 Crabtree et al., 2004 Tripuraneni et al., 2012 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A higher incidence of depressive disorders and symptoms has been suggested among children suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Yet, the extent to which OSA is related to increased depression is unclear.
To evaluate (a) the relationship between depressive symptoms and OSA in pediatric populations, and (b) the efficacy of adenotonsillectomy (AT) for decreasing depressive symptoms among children with OSA.
A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms and OSA, and the efficacy of AT for decreasing depressive symptoms. Studies reporting depressive symptoms of children with OSA through January 2013 were included.
Eleven studies assessed depressive symptoms in both children diagnosed with OSA (n = 894) and a comparison group (n = 1,096). A medium relationship was found between depressive symptoms and OSA (Hedges' g = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.64; p = 0.0005). Addressing the second question, 9 studies (n = 379 children) examined depressive symptoms pre- and post-AT. A medium improvement in depressive symptoms was found at follow-up (Hedge's g = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20-0.62; p ≤ 0.001).
Our findings suggest that depressive symptoms are higher among children with OSA. Therefore, patients with depressive symptomatology should receive screening for sleep disordered breathing. Treatment of OSA with AT might decrease clinical symptoms of depression, reduce pharmacotherapy, improve sleep patterns, and promote better health.
Yilmaz E; Sedky K; Bennett DS. The relationship between depressive symptoms and obstructive sleep apnea in pediatric populations: a meta-analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(11):1213-1220.
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 11/2013; 9(11):1213-1220. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.3178 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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