Article

Surgical sepsis and organ crosstalk: the role of the kidney.

Department of Surgery, The Methodist Hospital and Research Institute, Houston Texas, USA.
Journal of Surgical Research (Impact Factor: 2.12). 12/2010; 167(2):306-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2010.11.923
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalized patients, and clinical outcomes remain poor despite advances in renal replacement therapy. The accepted pathophysiology of AKI in the setting of sepsis has evolved from one of simple decreased renal blood flow to one that involves a more complex interaction of intra-glomerular microcirculatory vasodilation combined with the local release of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis. Evidence from preclinical AKI models suggests that crosstalk occurs between kidneys and other organ systems via soluble and cellular inflammatory mediators and that this involves both the innate and adaptive immune systems. These interactions are reflected by genomic changes and abnormal rates of cellular apoptosis in distant organs including the lungs, heart, gut, liver, and central nervous system. The purpose of this article is to review the influence of AKI, particularly sepsis-associated AKI, on inter-organ crosstalk in the context of systemic inflammation and multiple organ failure (MOF).

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Frederick Alan Moore, Jul 07, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
155 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We studied the effectiveness of human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) on management of acute kidney injury. METHODS: This retrospective single-center study included 43 patients from January 2007 to February 2010 who had undergone non-elective abdominal surgery for gastrointestinal perforation and ileus. Patients were separated into 2 groups according to whether hANP was administered or not, and 4 subgroups according to whether or not baseline serum creatinine <1.2 mg/dL; normal cre/hANP (-) (n = 22), high cre/hANP (-) (n = 10), normal cre/hANP (+) (n = 4), and high cre/hANP (+) (n = 7). The administration of hANP was started during operation. RESULTS: The administration rate of hANP ranged between 0.02 and 0.05 μg/kg per minute, except for one patient and the average postoperative administration time of hANP was 167 ± 237 h (range, 8-888 h). There were no significant differences in characteristics of patients within four subgroups, except for patient's weight. Serum creatinine in high cre/hANP (+) got to decrease more than high cre/hANP (-). Outcomes such as 28-day mortality were not significantly different among four subgroups. No patients required renal replacement therapy in each subgroup. CONCLUSION: Intravenous low dose of hANP was useful as acute kidney injury management in gastrointestinal perforation and ileus patients undergoing non-elective surgery.
    Journal of critical care 10/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2012.07.020 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the incremental hospital cost and mortality associated with the development of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and with other associated postoperative complications. Background: Each year 1.5 million patients develop a major complication after surgery. Postoperative AKI is one of the most common postoperative complications and is associated with an increase in hospital mortality and decreased survival for up to 15 years after surgery. Methods: In a single-center cohort of 50,314 adult surgical patients undergoing major inpatient surgery, we applied risk-adjusted regression models for cost and mortality using postoperative AKI and other complications as the main independent predictors. We defined AKI using consensus Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-Stage Renal Disease criteria. Results: The prevalence of AKI was 39% among 50,314 patients with available serum creatinine. Patients with AKI were more likely to have postoperative complications and had longer lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and the hospital. The risk-adjusted average cost of care for patients undergoing surgery was $42,600 for patients with any AKI compared with $26,700 for patients without AKI. The risk-adjusted 90-day mortality was 6.5% for patients with any AKI compared with 4.4% for patients without AKI. Serious postoperative complications resulted in increased cost of care and mortality for all patients, but the increase was much larger for those patients with any degree of AKI. Conclusions: Hospital costs and mortality are strongly associated with postoperative AKI, are correlated with the severity of AKI, and are much higher for patients with other postoperative complications in addition to AKI.
    Annals of Surgery 05/2014; 261(6). DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000732 · 7.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vascular surgery patients have multiple risk factors for renal dysfunction, but acute kidney injury (AKI) is poorly studied in this group. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of AKI in high-risk vascular patients. Critically ill vascular surgery patients admitted during January-December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed with 1-year follow-up. The endpoint was AKI by established RIFLE creatinine criteria. The primary analysis was between patients with or without AKI, with secondary analysis of post-operative AKI. Outcomes were inpatient and 1-year mortality, inpatient lengths of stay, and discharge renal function. One-hundred and thirty six vascular surgery patients were included, representing 27% of all vascular surgery admissions during the study period. Sixty-five (48%) developed AKI. Independent global risk factors for AKI were diabetes, increasing critical illness severity, and sepsis. While intraoperative blood loss and hypotension were associated with subsequent renal dysfunction, post-operative AKI rates were similar for patients undergoing aortic, carotid, endovascular, or peripheral vascular procedures. All RIFLE grades of AKI were associated with worse outcomes. Overall, patients with AKI had significantly increased short- and long-term mortality, longer inpatient lengths of stay, and worse discharge renal function. AKI is common among critically ill vascular surgery patients. Importantly, the type of surgical procedure appears to be less important than intra- and perioperative management in determining renal dysfunction. Regardless of its severity, AKI is a clinically significant complication that is associated with substantially worse patient outcomes.
    03/2015; 2. DOI:10.3389/fsurg.2015.00008