Surgical sepsis and organ crosstalk: the role of the kidney.

Department of Surgery, The Methodist Hospital and Research Institute, Houston Texas, USA.
Journal of Surgical Research (Impact Factor: 2.12). 12/2010; 167(2):306-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2010.11.923
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalized patients, and clinical outcomes remain poor despite advances in renal replacement therapy. The accepted pathophysiology of AKI in the setting of sepsis has evolved from one of simple decreased renal blood flow to one that involves a more complex interaction of intra-glomerular microcirculatory vasodilation combined with the local release of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis. Evidence from preclinical AKI models suggests that crosstalk occurs between kidneys and other organ systems via soluble and cellular inflammatory mediators and that this involves both the innate and adaptive immune systems. These interactions are reflected by genomic changes and abnormal rates of cellular apoptosis in distant organs including the lungs, heart, gut, liver, and central nervous system. The purpose of this article is to review the influence of AKI, particularly sepsis-associated AKI, on inter-organ crosstalk in the context of systemic inflammation and multiple organ failure (MOF).

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