Motion psychophysics: 1985–2010

Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
Vision research (Impact Factor: 2.38). 02/2011; 51(13):1431-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2011.02.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This review traces progress made in the field of visual motion research from 1985 through to 2010. While it is certainly not exhaustive, it attempts to cover most of the major achievements during that period, and speculate on where the field is heading.

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Available from: David Burr, Jun 25, 2014
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    • "Alternatively, solutions can rely on nonambiguous " trackable features, " such as corners , line terminators (Hildreth & Ullman, 1982), T-junctions (McDermott, Weiss, & Adelson, 2001), and contour curvature (Blair, Goold, Killebrew, & Caplovitz, 2013; Caplovitz, Hsieh & Tse, 2006; Caplovitz & Tse, 2007b). The challenge for the visual system in either case is to determine what parts of the image to integrate and what parts to segregate (Braddick, 1993; Burr & Thompson, 2011): Do two moving contours belong to the same or two different moving objects? Is the terminator motion signal coming from the moving figure, or is it a spurious signal arising due to occlusion? "
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    ABSTRACT: The percept of four rotating dot pairs is bistable. The "local percept" is of four pairs of dots rotating independently. The "global percept" is of two large squares translating over one another (Anstis & Kim 2011). We have previously demonstrated (Kohler, Caplovitz, & Tse 2009) that the global percept appears to move more slowly than the local percept. Here, we investigate and rule out several hypotheses for why this may be the case. First, we demonstrate that the global slowdown effect does not occur because the global percept is of larger objects than the local percept. Second, we show that the global slowdown effect is not related to rotation-specific detectors that may be more active in the local than in the global percept. Third, we find that the effect is also not due to a reduction of image elements during grouping and can occur with a stimulus very different from the one used previously. This suggests that the effect may reflect a general property of perceptual grouping. Having ruled out these possibilities, we suggest that the global slowdown effect may arise from emergent motion signals that are generated by the moving dots, which are interpreted as the ends of "barbell bars" in the local percept or the corners of the illusory squares in the global percept. Alternatively, the effect could be the result of noisy sources of motion information that arise from perceptual grouping that, in turn, increase the influence of Bayesian priors toward slow motion (Weiss, Simoncelli, & Adelson 2002).
    Attention Perception & Psychophysics 01/2014; DOI:10.3758/s13414-013-0607-x · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    • "A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study revealed higher activity in MT during a speed discrimination task than a contrast discrimination task (Huk & Heeger, 2000), and a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study reported more activity in the middle temporal area during attention to speed compared to attention to shape or colour (Corbetta et al., 1991). Many models have been proposed for how speed is represented in the brain (see Burr and Thompson (2011) "
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    ABSTRACT: The processing of speed is a critical part of a child's visual development, allowing children to track and interact with moving objects. Despite such importance, no study has investigated the developmental trajectory of speed discrimination abilities or precisely when these abilities become adult-like. Here, we measured speed discrimination thresholds in 5-, 7-, 9-, 11-year-olds and adults using random dot stimuli with two different reference speeds (slow: 1.5deg/s; fast: 6deg/s). Sensitivity for both reference speeds improved exponentially with age and, at all ages, participants were more sensitive to the faster reference speed. However, sensitivity to slow speeds followed a more protracted developmental trajectory than that for faster speeds. Furthermore, sensitivity to the faster reference speed reached adult-like levels by 11years, whereas sensitivity to the slower reference speed was not yet adult-like by this age. Different developmental trajectories may reflect distinct systems for processing fast and slow speeds. The reasonably late development of speed processing abilities may be due to inherent limits in the integration of neuronal responses in motion-sensitive areas in early childhood.
    Vision research 08/2012; 70:27-33. DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2012.08.004 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    • "After decades of intensive investigations of visual motion perception (Burr & Thompson, 2011; Nishida, 2011), questions remain in the field. One of the most essential questions concerns the visual pathways of motion signals, particularly the relationship of color and luminance motion and their integration process (Cropper, 2005, 2006; Cropper & Wuerger, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the low-level motion mechanisms for color and luminance and their integration process using 2D and 3D motion aftereffects (MAEs). The 2D and 3D MAEs obtained in equiluminant color gratings showed that the visual system has the low-level motion mechanism for color motion as well as for luminance motion. The 3D MAE is an MAE for motion in depth after monocular motion adaptation. Apparent 3D motion can be perceived after prolonged exposure of one eye to lateral motion because the difference in motion signal between the adapted and unadapted eyes generates interocular velocity differences (IOVDs). Since IOVDs cannot be analyzed by the high-level motion mechanism of feature tracking, we conclude that a low-level motion mechanism is responsible for the 3D MAE. Since we found different temporal frequency characteristics between the color and luminance stimuli, MAEs in the equiluminant color stimuli cannot be attributed to a residual luminance component in the color stimulus. Although a similar MAE was found with a luminance and a color test both for 2D and 3D motion judgments after adapting to either color or luminance motion, temporal frequency characteristics were different between the color and luminance adaptation. The visual system must have a low-level motion mechanism for color signals as for luminance ones. We also found that color and luminance motion signals are integrated monocularly before IOVD analysis, showing a cross adaptation effect between color and luminance stimuli. This was supported by an experiment with dichoptic presentations of color and luminance tests. In the experiment, color and luminance tests were presented in the different eyes dichoptically with four different combinations of test and adaptation: color or luminance test in the adapted eye after color or luminance adaptation. Findings of little or no influence of the adaptation/test combinations indicate the integration of color and luminance motion signals prior to the binocular IOVD process.
    Journal of Vision 06/2012; 12(6). DOI:10.1167/12.6.33 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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