Motion psychophysics: 1985–2010

Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
Vision research (Impact Factor: 1.82). 02/2011; 51(13):1431-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2011.02.008
Source: PubMed


This review traces progress made in the field of visual motion research from 1985 through to 2010. While it is certainly not exhaustive, it attempts to cover most of the major achievements during that period, and speculate on where the field is heading.

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Available from: David Burr, Jun 25, 2014
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    • "In the dorsal pathway this hierarchical processing produces computations of complex motion of objects within the environment around us, either as we are stationary or moving through that environment. Because of this functional separation, there are many models of object representation in the ventral stream (see Peissig and Tarr, 2007 for a review) and many models of motion processing in the dorsal stream (for reviews see Burr and Thompson, 2011; Nishida, 2011), but motion processing research has been mostly devoid of investigations as to the nature or existence of object representations in the dorsal stream. In fact, the vision for action theory of dorsal stream function (Goodale and Milner, 1992; Goodale, 2008, 2013) would suggest that even though there might not be an internal representation of the object as a whole (see Farivar, 2009 for an alternative view), there are representations of features of an object that are relevant for action in real time. "
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    ABSTRACT: The visual system is split into two processing streams: a ventral stream that receives color and form information and a dorsal stream that receives motion information. Each stream processes that information hierarchically, with each stage building upon the previous. In the ventral stream this leads to the formation of object representations that ultimately allow for object recognition regardless of changes in the surrounding environment. In the dorsal stream, this hierarchical processing has classically been thought to lead to the computation of complex motion in three dimensions. However, there is evidence to suggest that there is integration of both dorsal and ventral stream information into motion computation processes, giving rise to intermediate object representations, which facilitate object selection and decision making mechanisms in the dorsal stream. First we review the hierarchical processing of motion along the dorsal stream and the building up of object representations along the ventral stream. Then we discuss recent work on the integration of ventral and dorsal stream features that lead to intermediate object representations in the dorsal stream. Finally we propose a framework describing how and at what stage different features are integrated into dorsal visual stream object representations. Determining the integration of features along the dorsal stream is necessary to understand not only how the dorsal stream builds up an object representation but also which computations are performed on object representations instead of local features.
    Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 08/2014; 8:84. DOI:10.3389/fncom.2014.00084 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    • "Alternatively, solutions can rely on nonambiguous " trackable features, " such as corners , line terminators (Hildreth & Ullman, 1982), T-junctions (McDermott, Weiss, & Adelson, 2001), and contour curvature (Blair, Goold, Killebrew, & Caplovitz, 2013; Caplovitz, Hsieh & Tse, 2006; Caplovitz & Tse, 2007b). The challenge for the visual system in either case is to determine what parts of the image to integrate and what parts to segregate (Braddick, 1993; Burr & Thompson, 2011): Do two moving contours belong to the same or two different moving objects? Is the terminator motion signal coming from the moving figure, or is it a spurious signal arising due to occlusion? "
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    ABSTRACT: The percept of four rotating dot pairs is bistable. The "local percept" is of four pairs of dots rotating independently. The "global percept" is of two large squares translating over one another (Anstis & Kim 2011). We have previously demonstrated (Kohler, Caplovitz, & Tse 2009) that the global percept appears to move more slowly than the local percept. Here, we investigate and rule out several hypotheses for why this may be the case. First, we demonstrate that the global slowdown effect does not occur because the global percept is of larger objects than the local percept. Second, we show that the global slowdown effect is not related to rotation-specific detectors that may be more active in the local than in the global percept. Third, we find that the effect is also not due to a reduction of image elements during grouping and can occur with a stimulus very different from the one used previously. This suggests that the effect may reflect a general property of perceptual grouping. Having ruled out these possibilities, we suggest that the global slowdown effect may arise from emergent motion signals that are generated by the moving dots, which are interpreted as the ends of "barbell bars" in the local percept or the corners of the illusory squares in the global percept. Alternatively, the effect could be the result of noisy sources of motion information that arise from perceptual grouping that, in turn, increase the influence of Bayesian priors toward slow motion (Weiss, Simoncelli, & Adelson 2002).
    Attention Perception & Psychophysics 01/2014; 76(3). DOI:10.3758/s13414-013-0607-x · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    • "Note that the names of these areas refer to anatomical locations within the macaque brain, where they were initially discovered, and that homologous areas in the human brain are often referred to by the same names, even though these areas are not located in human medial temporal cortex. An extensive set of well-validated psychophysical methods for measuring components of motion processing has been established (Burr and Thompson, 2011), providing a foundation for the translation of motion processing paradigms into clinical studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive and information processing deficits are core features and important sources of disability in schizophrenia. Our understanding of the neural substrates of these deficits remains incomplete, in large part because the complexity of impairments in schizophrenia makes the identification of specific deficits very challenging. Vision science presents unique opportunities in this regard: many years of basic research have led to detailed characterization of relationships between structure and function in the early visual system and have produced sophisticated methods to quantify visual perception and characterize its neural substrates. We present a selective review of research that illustrates the opportunities for discovery provided by visual studies in schizophrenia. We highlight work that has been particularly effective in applying vision science methods to identify specific neural abnormalities underlying information processing deficits in schizophrenia. In addition, we describe studies that have utilized psychophysical experimental designs that mitigate generalized deficit confounds, thereby revealing specific visual impairments in schizophrenia. These studies contribute to accumulating evidence that early visual cortex is a useful experimental system for the study of local cortical circuit abnormalities in schizophrenia. The high degree of similarity across neocortical areas of neuronal subtypes and their patterns of connectivity suggests that insights obtained from the study of early visual cortex may be applicable to other brain regions. We conclude with a discussion of future studies that combine vision science and neuroimaging methods. These studies have the potential to address pressing questions in schizophrenia, including the dissociation of local circuit deficits vs. impairments in feedback modulation by cognitive processes such as spatial attention and working memory, and the relative contributions of glutamatergic and GABAergic deficits.
    Frontiers in Psychology 10/2013; 4:681. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00681 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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