The purpose of this pilot study was to compare garden walking (either alone or guided) with art therapy in older adults with depression. Depression was measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and stories of sadness/joy. Prior to the intervention, 47% of participants had depression scores in the severe range and 53% in the mild range. At the end of the intervention, none of the participants had scores in the severe range, 89% had scores in the mild range, and 11% had scores in the normal range. Results of the GDS data using repeated measures analysis of variance indicated significant decreases in depression for all three groups from pretest to posttest. All participants, regardless of group assignment, had a lower percentage of negative-emotion word use and a higher percentage of positive-emotion word use over time. This study provides evidence for nurses wishing to guide older adults in safe, easy, and inexpensive ways to reduce depression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of mental health problems are non-psychotic (e.g., depression, anxiety, and phobias). For some people, art therapy may be a more acceptable alternative form of psychological therapy than standard forms of treatment, such as talking therapies. This study was part of a health technology assessment commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research, UK and aimed to systematically appraise the clinical and cost-effective evidence for art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental health disorders.
Comprehensive literature searches for studies examining art therapy in populations with non-psychotic mental health disorders were performed in May 2013. A quantitative systematic review of clinical effectiveness and a systematic review of studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of group art therapy were conducted.
Eleven randomised controlled trials were included (533 patients). Meta-analysis was not possible due to clinical heterogeneity and insufficient comparable data on outcome measures across studies. The control groups varied between studies but included: no treatment/wait-list, attention placebo controls and psychological therapy comparators. Art therapy was associated with significant positive changes relative to the control group in mental health symptoms in 7 of the 11 studies. A de novo model was constructed and populated with data identified from the clinical review. Scenario analyses were conducted allowing comparisons of group art therapy with wait-list control and group art therapy with group verbal therapy. Group art-therapy appeared cost-effective compared with wait-list control with high certainty although generalisability to the target population was unclear; group verbal therapy appeared more cost-effective than art therapy but there was considerable uncertainty and a sizeable probability that art therapy was more cost effective.
From the limited available evidence art therapy was associated with positive effects compared with control in a number of studies in patients with different clinical profiles. The included trials were generally of poor quality and are therefore likely to be at high risk of bias. Art therapy appeared to be cost-effective versus wait-list but further studies are needed to confirm this finding in the target population. There was insufficient evidence to make an informed comparison of the cost-effectiveness of group art therapy with group verbal therapy.
HTA project no. 12/27/16; PROSPERO registration no. CRD42013003957 .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We review the academic literature (n=113) that addresses effects on human health and well-being that occur when people interact with open spaces and nature in urban settings. We identify key design elements and research principles as well as commonly used research methodologies and outcome variables. We identify and discuss a critical balance between reductionism in design and research and a holistic and integrative approach. That balance is as critical to successful designs of open spaces intended to improve human health and well-being as it is to successful research to document those effects. We also address gaps in the existing evidence base and recommend directions that researchers and practitioners should adopt in order to further advance the ability to design and research open spaces in urban areas to improve human health and well-being. Overall, we call for efforts to build a stronger evidence base to better inform policy- makers and practitioners in the future.
Human Ecology Review 12/2013; 20(1):36. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review provides an overview of the relationship between depression and cognition in the elderly, with an emphasis on psychotherapies and nonpharmacologic approaches. We first review the clinical presentation of late-life depression and comorbid cognitive impairment, as well as the epidemiology and risk factors for cognitive impairment in late-life depression and the temporal relationship between depression and cognitive impairment. Next, we discuss the salient topic of elderly suicide and cognitive impairment. Wethen touch briefly on the neuropsychological deficits, biomarkers, and neuroimaging findings in late-life depression with comorbid cognitive impairment. We then focus most of this review on psychotherapies and nontraditional treatments for late-life depression with comorbid cognitive impairment and examine what evidence, if any, exists of the cognitive and functional benefits of these treatments. Finally, we examine the cognitive effects of pharmacologic treatments and brain stimulation therapies. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 11 is March 28, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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