Garden Walking and Art Therapy for Depression in Older Adults
ABSTRACT The purpose of this pilot study was to compare garden walking (either alone or guided) with art therapy in older adults with depression. Depression was measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and stories of sadness/joy. Prior to the intervention, 47% of participants had depression scores in the severe range and 53% in the mild range. At the end of the intervention, none of the participants had scores in the severe range, 89% had scores in the mild range, and 11% had scores in the normal range. Results of the GDS data using repeated measures analysis of variance indicated significant decreases in depression for all three groups from pretest to posttest. All participants, regardless of group assignment, had a lower percentage of negative-emotion word use and a higher percentage of positive-emotion word use over time. This study provides evidence for nurses wishing to guide older adults in safe, easy, and inexpensive ways to reduce depression.
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ABSTRACT: This review provides an overview of the relationship between depression and cognition in the elderly, with an emphasis on psychotherapies and nonpharmacologic approaches. We first review the clinical presentation of late-life depression and comorbid cognitive impairment, as well as the epidemiology and risk factors for cognitive impairment in late-life depression and the temporal relationship between depression and cognitive impairment. Next, we discuss the salient topic of elderly suicide and cognitive impairment. Wethen touch briefly on the neuropsychological deficits, biomarkers, and neuroimaging findings in late-life depression with comorbid cognitive impairment. We then focus most of this review on psychotherapies and nontraditional treatments for late-life depression with comorbid cognitive impairment and examine what evidence, if any, exists of the cognitive and functional benefits of these treatments. Finally, we examine the cognitive effects of pharmacologic treatments and brain stimulation therapies. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 11 is March 28, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 01/2015; 11(1). DOI:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032814-112828 · 12.42 Impact Factor