Effective Vision Screening of Young Children in the Pediatric Office
ABSTRACT By performing timely vision screening exams, primary care physicians play a critical role in preserving the vision of young children. Retinoblastoma, infantile cataracts, strabismus, and amblyopia are not always obvious to parents or pediatricians. These four disorders are the primary targets of vision screening in young children. For children who fail a screening test, efforts should be made to assure that a comprehensive ophthalmology examination is received. Early detection and intervention are critical for providing the best opportunity for excellent vision in every child.
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ABSTRACT: To develop a technique that would allow us to cannulate repeatedly the ophthalmic artery of young children with advanced retinoblastoma, to find a dose of melphalan that would be tolerable and tumoricidal for retinoblastoma when given intraarterially, and to study the local ocular and systemic side effects of intraarterial melphalan in these children. Phase I/II clinical trial. Ten children with advanced retinoblastoma (Reese-Ellsworth V) eyes who were indicated for enucleation were entered into an institutional review board-approved protocol of ophthalmic artery infusion of melphalan to avoid enucleation. Cannulation of the ophthalmic artery was performed by a femoral artery approach using microcatheters while the children were under anesthesia and anticoagulated. Chemotherapy (melphalan) was infused into the artery over a 30-minute period. Ophthalmic examinations, retinal photography, and electroretinograms were used to document local toxicity, whereas physical examinations and complete blood counts were used to measure systemic toxicity. The ophthalmic arteries were successfully cannulated in 9 cases (total, 27 times), as many as 6 times in 1 patient. Dramatic regression of tumors, vitreous seeds, and subretinal seeds were seen in each case. No severe systemic side effects (sepsis, anemia, neutropenia, fever, or death) occurred. No transfusions were required (red cells or platelets). Three patients developed conjunctival and lid edema that resolved without treatment. There was no toxicity to the cornea, anterior segment, pupil, or motility. One (previously irradiated) eye developed retinal ischemia; another eye had no toxicity after intraarterial chemotherapy but did develop a radiationlike retinopathy after brachytherapy. Vision stabilized or improved in all but 1 patient after treatment. Electroretinograms were generally poor (advanced eyes were treated), but in 2 cases, the electroretinogram improved after treatment (and resolution of a retinal detachment). Seven eyes avoided enucleation. Two intraarterially treated eyes were enucleated, with no viable tumors identified pathologically. We developed a technique of direct ophthalmic artery infusion of melphalan for children with retinoblastoma. The technique had minimal systemic side effects (one patient had grade 3 neutropenia) and minimal local toxicity. Among the first 9 cases treated with this technique, 7 eyes destined to be enucleated were salvaged.Ophthalmology 04/2008; 115(8):1398-404, 1404.e1. DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.12.014 · 6.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To correlate 3 common presenting signs of retinoblastoma with patient and ocular survival and to assess the efficacy of current pediatric screening practices for retinoblastoma. A retrospective study was conducted of 1831 retinoblastoma patients from our center (1914-June 2000). Patient survival (excluding deaths from other primary neoplasms) and ocular survival (presenting eyes) rates were calculated and analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Leukocoria correlated with excellent patient survival (>86%, 5 years) but poor ocular survival in unilateral (4%, 5 years) and bilateral patients (29%, 5 years). A total of 308 (19%) of 1654 patients presented with strabismus: patient survival was excellent (90%, 5 years), and ocular survival was poor (17%, 5 years) yet better than leukocoria. Patients who had a family history of retinoblastoma and were clinically screened for retinal tumors from birth were diagnosed younger (8 months of age) and earlier (Reese Ellsworth group 1 = 26 [58%] of 45) and had better ocular survival than nonscreened patients with a family history. More patients were initially detected by family/friends (1315 [80%] of 1632) than pediatricians (123 [8%] of 1632) or ophthalmologists (156 [10%] of 1632). Most US children whose retinoblastoma is diagnosed initially present with leukocoria detected by a parent, despite routine pediatric screening for leukocoria via the red reflex test. Initial disease detection at the point of leukocoria or strabismus correlated with high patient survival rates and poor ocular survival rates for the presenting eye. Saving eyes and vision requires disease recognition before leukocoria, as demonstrated by the better ocular salvage rate among patients who had a positive family history and received clinical surveillance via early, routine dilated funduscopic examinations by an ophthalmologist.PEDIATRICS 12/2003; 112(6 Pt 1):1248-55. DOI:10.1542/peds.112.6.1248 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the plusoptiX S04 digital photoscreener in a school screening program. Between 2006 and 2007, 1343 information pamphlets/consent forms were sent to all junior kindergarten students in a local school district. Assistants from a local public health unit photographed 307 children. Of these, 271 children received an independent ophthalmic examination by a physician. Photographic results were compared with the those of the ophthalmic examination. Amblyopia risk factors were defined as anisometropia >1 D (sphere or cylinder), astigmatism >1.25 D, myopia >3 D, hyperopia >3.5 D, any manifest strabismus, and any media opacity. Photographic and examination results agreed in 94% of cases. Sensitivity in detecting amblyopia risk factors was 83%; specificity was 95%. The positive and negative predictive values were 73% and 97%, respectively. The untestable/unusable rate was 1%. These results compare favorably with a previously reported (but no longer available) digital photoscreening camera and are superior to results obtained with other off-axis photoscreening devices that require human interpretation. On the basis of these results, in a real-world screening program, the camera would falsely refer 4% of those screened and would fail to correctly refer 2%. The accuracy of the plusoptiX S04 camera in detecting amblyopia risk factors appears sufficiently high to consider its further deployment in a widespread school screening program.Journal of AAPOS: the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 12/2008; 13(1):51-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jaapos.2008.08.016 · 1.00 Impact Factor