Biflavonoids are superior to monoflavonoids in inhibiting amyloid-β toxicity and fibrillogenesis via accumulation of nontoxic oligomer-like structures.
ABSTRACT Polymerization of monomeric amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) into soluble oligomers and insoluble fibrils is one of the major pathways triggering the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using small molecules to prevent the polymerization of Aβ peptides can, therefore, be an effective therapeutic strategy for AD. In this study, we investigate the effects of mono- and biflavonoids in Aβ42-induced toxicity and fibrillogenesis and find that the biflavonoid taiwaniaflavone (TF) effectively and specifically inhibits Aβ toxicity and fibrillogenesis. Compared to TF, the monoflavonoid apigenin (AP) is less effective and less specific. Our data show that differential effects of the mono- and biflavonoids in Aβ fibrillogenesis correlate with their varying cytoprotective efficacies. We also find that other biflavonoids, namely, 2',8''-biapigenin, amentoflavone, and sumaflavone, can also effectively inhibit Aβ toxicity and fibrillogenesis, implying that the participation of two monoflavonoids in a single biflavonoid molecule enhances their activity. Biflavonoids, while strongly inhibiting Aβ fibrillogenesis, accumulate nontoxic Aβ oligomeric structures, suggesting that these are off-pathway oligomers. Moreover, TF abrogates the toxicity of preformed Aβ oligomers and fibrils, indicating that TF and other biflavonoids may also reduce the toxicity of toxic Aβ species. Altogether, our data clearly show that biflavonoids, possibly because of the possession of two Aβ binders separated by an appropriate size linker, are likely to be promising therapeutics for suppressing Aβ toxicity.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: α-Synucein is a small (14kDa), abundant, intrinsically disordered presynaptic protein, whose aggregation is believed to be a critical step in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress is reported to be a risk factor for dopamine cell degeneration in PD. Flavonoids are suggested to be important antioxidant against oxidative stress. Flavonoids were reported to inhibit fibrillization and disaggregate the preformed fibrils of α-synucein, but the molecular mechanism was still not clear. METHODS: Quercetin, a well-recognized flavonoid antioxidant, was tested for its inhibition of α-synucein aggregation by thioflavin T assay, light scattering measurement, size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography, atomic force microscopy, etc. RESULTS: The pre-incubated quercetin exhibited a noticeably stronger inhibition behavior to the fibril formation than that of the freshly prepared. The inhibition is significant in the presence of ortho- and para- benzenediol isomers and inconsiderable in the presence of meta- isomer. The oxidized quercetin species (i.e., chalcantrione, benzyfuranone, quercetinchinone, and other derivatives) cause stronger inhibition than quercetin does because of the elevated polarity and hydrophilicity. Presence of quercetin disaggregates α-synucein fibrils, rather than oligomers and amorphous aggregations. CONCLUSIONS: Instead of the antioxidant activity, the 1:1 covalent binding of quercetin with α-synucein, and the increased hydophilicity of the covalently modified α-synucein oligomers or monomers, account for the inhibition of α-synucein fibrillation. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Clarification of the molecular mechanism of the inhibition and disaggregation may help to screen safer and more effective flavonoid therapeutic in combating PD.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular senile plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and memory loss. Aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ), oxidative stress, and inflammation have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. Therefore, the inhibition of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. In this study, a heptapeptide, isolated from a Ph.D.-C7C library by phage display, attenuated Aβ42-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and reduced Aβ42-induced oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reactive oxygen species and glutathione disulfide. As a result, glutathione level increased and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were enhanced in vitro and in vivo. This peptide also suppressed inflammatory response by decreasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β, in microglia and by reducing the microgliosis and astrogliosis in AD transgenic mice. This peptide was intracerebroventricularly administered to the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. We found that this peptide significantly improved the spatial memory and reduced the amyloid plaque burden and soluble and insoluble Aβ levels. Our findings suggested that this multifunctional peptide has a therapeutic potential for an Aβ-targeted treatment of AD.Free radical biology & medicine. 06/2014;
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ABSTRACT: A number of ligands with affinities for the heme binding site of apomyoglobin were tested to control amorphous and fibrillar aggregation in the protein. Several techniques, including fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dot blot analysis combined with viability studies were employed for structural characterization and cytotoxicity assessment of the intermediate and final protein structures formed during the aggregation process. Of the small molecules investigated, chrysin and Nile red with high structural similarities to heme were chosen for further studies. Only fibril formation was found to be prevented by Nile red, while chrysin, with a greater structural flexibility, was able to prevent both types of aggregate formation. The two ligands were found to influence aggregation at different stages of intermediate structure formation, an ability determined by their degrees of similarities with heme. Based on structural characterization and toxicity studies, it is concluded that ligands similar in structure to heme may be effective in influencing various stages of aggregate formation and toxicity potencies of the protein structures. Since metalloproteins constitute more than thirty percent of all known proteins, it is concluded that the present strategy may be of general significance.The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 10/2012; · 4.89 Impact Factor