Homocysteine levels and the metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean population: A case-control study
ABSTRACT Hyperhomocysteinemia (HH) and metabolic syndrome (MS) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. However, whether there is a link between MS or its components and homocysteine levels in a population without cardiovascular disease is not well established. We conducted a case-control study in 61 MS patients (41 males, 20 females, aged 51 ± 11 years) and in 98 controls without MS (59 males, 39 females, aged 50 ± 10 years) to ascertain the association between MS and HH, and with inflammatory markers. MS was classified according to the updated ATPIII criteria . No differences in homocysteine levels were observed when comparing MS patients and controls (12.0 ± 3.18 μM vs. 11.9 ± 3.5 μM, p = 0.829). No association was found between HH (homocysteine >15 μM) and MS, its components (abdominal obesity (p = 0.635), hypertension (0.229), low-HDL cholesterol (p = 0.491), glucose >100 mg/dL (0.485), hypertriglyceridemia (p = 0.490)) or the number of MS components (p = 272). When considering glucose >110 mg/dL (NCEP-ATPIII criteria, 2001) instead of glucose intolerancen >100 mg/dl (updated ATPIII criteria, Grundy, 2005), a borderline association with HH was observed (p = 0.054) of statistical significance (p = 0.008) when glucose >126 mg/dL was considered. In a multivariate regression model, creatinine, folic acid and vitamin B12 were the only independent predictors of homocysteine levels (p < 0.05). Although MS correlated with inflammatory parameters (fibrinogen, hs-RCP, plasma viscosity and leukocyte count, p < 0.001), no association was found between HH and the above-mentioned parameters (p > 0.05). Our results do not indicate a link between SM or its individual components with HH, and diabetes was the only relevant contribution. Cardiovascular disease risk due to MS and HH seems to share no common mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: The association between hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) remains a matter of debate. In 18 primary RP, 23 secondary RP and 41 controls, we investigated homocysteine (Hcy) levels along with biochemical and inflammatory parameters. The Hcy levels in both primary and secondary RP were elevated when compared with controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). As age was higher in secondary RP as compared with controls (p < 0.01), both primary and secondary RP were age-matched with a corresponding control group, and with Hcy maintaining its statistical significance (p < 0.05). No differences in creatinine, B12 vitamin or folic acid were observed between groups (p > 0.05), or in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (p > 0.05). When patients were classified according to presence or absence of digital ulcers, as a sign of microangiopathy severity, the former showed higher Hcy levels than the latter (p = 0.035). Our results indicate that both primary and secondary RP patients show a mild increase in Hcy levels, which is not related to age, vitamin deficiencies or impaired renal function, but is related to microangiopathy severity. Therefore the association of HHcy and RP suggest that Hcy may contribute to endothelial dysregulation, which characterizes this disease. Specific studies should be designed to elucidate the pathogenesis of HHcy in these patients.Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 03/2014; DOI:10.3233/CH-131681 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The association between morbid obesity and hyperhomocysteinemia (HH) remains controversial and the nature of this relationship needs to be clarified as several metabolic, lipidic, inflammatory and anthropometric alterations that accompany morbid obesity may be involved. In 66 morbidly obese patients, 47 women and 19 men aged 41 ± 12 years and 66 normo-weight subjects, 43 women and 23 men, aged 45 ± 11 years, we determined homocysteine (Hcy) levels along with lipidic, anthropometric, inflammatory and insulin resistance markers. In addition, we investigated the effect of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and its components on Hcy levels. Obese patients had statistically higher Hcy levels than controls: 12.76 ± 5.30 μM vs. 10.67 ± 2.50 μM; p = 0.006. Moreover, morbidly obese subjects showed higher waist circumference, glucose, insulin, HOMA, leptin, triglycerides, fibrinogen, C reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.001, respectively), and lower vitamin B12 (p = 0.002), folic acid and HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001, respectively). In the multivariate regression analysis, waist circumference, glucose, leptin and folic acid levels were independent predictors for Hcy values (p < 0.050). When obese patients were classified as having MS or not, no differences in Hcy levels were found between the two groups (p = 0.752). Yet when we analysed separately each MS component, only abdominal obesity was associated with Hcy levels (p = 0.031). Moreover when considering glucose >110 mg/dL (NCEP-ATPIII criteria) instead of glucose intolerance >100 mg/dl (updated ATPIII criteria), it also was associated with HH (p = 0.042). These results were confirmed in the logistic regression analysis where abdominal obesity and glucose >115 mg/dL constitute independent predictors for HH (OR = 3.2; CI: 1.23-13.2; p = 0.032, OR: 4.6; CI: 1.7-22.2; p = 0.016, respectively). The results of our study indicate that increased Hcy levels are related mostly with abdominal obesity and with insulin resistance. Thus, HH may raise atherothrombotic and thromboembolic risk in these patients.Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 03/2012; 52(1):49-56. DOI:10.3233/CH-2012-1544 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Increased epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine levels are associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and coronary artery disease. The majority of patients with MS have subclinical or manifest coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between MS and plasma homocysteine levels and epicardial adipose tissue thickness in subjects without epicardial coronary artery disease. Methods Patients who underwent coronary angiography due to angina or equivocal symptoms and/or abnormal stress test results and were found to have normal coronary arteries were evaluated for the presence of MS. The study group comprised 75 patients with normal coronary arteries and MS, and the control group included 75 age-gender matched subjects without coronary artery disease or MS. Results Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (5.8 ± 1.9 mm vs. 4.3 ± 1.6 mm, p <0.001) and plasma homocysteine levels (21.6 ± 6.1 μmol/L vs. 15.1 ± 5.8 μmol/L, p <0.001) were significantly higher in the MS group. Body mass index, triglyceride level, weight, age and waist circumference were positively and HDL cholesterol level were negatively correlated with both epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine level. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness had the strongest correlation with plasma homocysteine level (r = 0.584, p < 0.001). For each 1 mm increase in epicardial adipose tissue thickness, an increase of 3.51 μmol/L (95% CI: 2.24-4.79) in plasma homocysteine level was expected. Conclusions We observed a close relationship between MS and epicardial adipose tissue thickness and plasma homocysteine levels, even in the absence of overt coronary artery disease.Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 05/2014; 6:62. DOI:10.1186/1758-5996-6-62 · 2.50 Impact Factor