Osteopontin undergoes polymerization in vivo and gains chemotactic activity for neutrophils mediated by integrin alpha9beta1.
ABSTRACT Osteopontin (OPN) is an integrin-binding inflammatory cytokine that undergoes polymerization catalyzed by transglutaminase 2. We have previously reported that polymeric OPN (polyOPN), but not unpolymerized OPN (OPN*), attracts neutrophils in vitro by presenting an acquired binding site for integrin α9β1. Among many in vitro substrates for transglutaminase 2, only a few have evidence for in vivo polymerization and concomitant function. Although polyOPN has been identified in bone and aorta, the in vivo functional significance of polyOPN is unknown. To determine whether OPN polymerization contributes to neutrophil recruitment in vivo, we injected OPN* into the peritoneal space of mice. Polymeric OPN was detected by immunoblotting in the peritoneal wash of mice injected with OPN*, and both intraperitoneal and plasma OPN* levels were higher in mice injected with a polymerization-incompetent mutant, confirming that OPN* polymerizes in vivo. OPN* injection induced neutrophil accumulation, which was significantly less following injection of a mutant OPN that was incapable of polymerization. The importance of in vivo polymerization was further confirmed with cystamine, a transglutaminase inhibitor, which blocked the polymerization and attenuated OPN*-mediated neutrophil recruitment. The thrombin-cleaved N-terminal fragment of OPN, another ligand for α9β1, was not responsible for neutrophil accumulation because a thrombin cleavage-incompetent mutant recruited similar numbers of neutrophils as wild type OPN*. Neutrophil accumulation in response to both wild type and thrombin cleavage-incompetent OPN* was reduced in mice lacking the integrin α9 subunit in leukocytes, indicating that α9β1 is required for polymerization-induced recruitment. We have illustrated a physiological role of molecular polymerization by demonstrating acquired chemotactic properties for OPN.
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ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) is a member of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING) family and a cytokine with diverse biologic roles. OPN undergoes extensive post-translational modifications, including polymerization and proteolytic fragmentation, which alters its biologic activity. Recent studies suggest that OPN may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. To determine whether secreted OPN (sOPN) is polymerized in human airways and whether it is qualitatively different in asthma, we used immunoblotting to examine sOPN in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from 12 healthy and 21 asthmatic subjects (and in sputum samples from 27 healthy and 21 asthmatic subjects). All asthmatic subjects had mild to moderate asthma and abstained from corticosteroids during the study. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between airway sOPN and cellular inflammation. We found that sOPN in BAL fluid and sputum exists in polymeric, monomeric, and cleaved forms, with most of it in polymeric form. Compared to healthy subjects, asthmatic subjects had proportionately less polymeric sOPN and more monomeric and cleaved sOPN. Polymeric sOPN in BAL fluid was associated with increased alveolar macrophage counts in airways in all subjects. These results suggest that sOPN in human airways (1) undergoes extensive post-translational modification by polymerization and proteolytic fragmentation, (2) is more fragmented and less polymerized in subjects with mild to moderate asthma, and (3) may contribute to recruitment or survival of alveolar macrophages.PLoS ONE 10/2011; 6(10):e25678. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0025678 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transglutaminase 2 (TG2 or tissue transglutaminase) is a highly complex multifunctional protein that acts as transglutaminase, GTPase/ATPase, protein disulfide isomerase, and protein kinase. Moreover, TG2 has many well-documented nonenzymatic functions that are based on its noncovalent interactions with multiple cellular proteins. A vast array of biochemical activities of TG2 accounts for its involvement in a variety of cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, growth, survival, apoptosis, differentiation, and extracellular matrix organization. In turn, the impact of TG2 on these processes implicates this protein in various physiological responses and pathological states, contributing to wound healing, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration, vascular remodeling, tumor growth and metastasis, and tissue fibrosis. TG2 is ubiquitously expressed and is particularly abundant in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, monocytes/macrophages, and smooth muscle cells. The protein is localized in multiple cellular compartments, including the nucleus, cytosol, mitochondria, endolysosomes, plasma membrane, and cell surface and extracellular matrix, where Ca(2+), nucleotides, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, membrane lipids, and distinct protein-protein interactions in the local microenvironment jointly regulate its activities. In this review, we discuss the complex biochemical activities and molecular interactions of TG2 in the context of diverse subcellular compartments and evaluate its wide ranging and cell type-specific biological functions and their regulation.International review of cell and molecular biology 01/2012; 294:1-97. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-394305-7.00001-X · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The multistep process of metastasis is a major hallmark of cancer progression involving the cointeraction and coevolution of the tumor and its microenvironment. In the tumor microenvironment, tumor cells and the surrounding stromal cells aberrantly secrete matricellular proteins, which are a family of nonstructural proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM) that exert regulatory roles via a variety of molecular mechanisms. Matricellular proteins provide signals that support tumorigenic activities characteristic of the metastastic cascade such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition, angiogenesis, tumor cell motility, proliferation, invasion, evasion from immune surveillance, and survival of anoikis. Herein, we review the current understanding of the following matricellular proteins and highlight their pivotal and multifacted roles in metastatic progression: angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4), CCN family members cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61/CCN1) and CCN6, osteopontin (OPN), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), tenascin C (TNC), and thrombospondin-1 and -2 (TSP1, TSP2). Insights into the signaling mechanisms resulting from the interaction of these matricellular proteins and their respective molecular partner(s), as well as their subsequent contribution to tumor metastasis, are discussed. In addition, emerging evidences of their promising potential as therapeutic options and/or targets in the treatment of cancer are also highlighted.Journal of Oncology 02/2012; 2012(3):351089. DOI:10.1155/2012/351089