Regulation of mTORC1 complex assembly and signaling by GRp58/ERp57.
ABSTRACT The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth and survival via two different multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. The assembly of these serine-threonine kinase multiprotein complexes occurs via poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that GRp58/ERp57 regulates the existence and activity of mTORC1. Endogenous mTOR interacts with GRp58/ERp57 in different mammalian cells. In vitro, recombinant GRp58/ERp57 preferentially interacts with mTORC1. GRp58/ERp57 knockdown reduces mTORC1 levels and phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and p70(S6K) in response to insulin. In contrast, GRp58/ERp57 overexpression increases mTORC1 levels and activity. A redox-sensitive mechanism that depends on GRp58/ERp57 expression activates mTORC1. Although GRp58/ERp57 is known as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident, we demonstrate its presence at the cytosol, together with mTOR, Raptor, and Rictor as well as a pool of these proteins associated to the ER. In addition, the presence of GRp58/ERp57 at the ER decreases in response to insulin or leucine. Interestingly, a fraction of p70(S6K), but not 4E-BP1, is associated to the ER and phosphorylated in response to serum, insulin, or leucine. Altogether, our results suggest that GRp58/ERp57 is involved in the assembly of mTORC1 and positively regulates mTORC1 signaling at the cytosol and the cytosolic side of the ER.
Article: An extended relationship for the characterization of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of tunable polyacrylamide gels.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Substrates with tunable mechanical properties are crucial for the study of cellular processes, and polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) are frequently used in this context. Several experimental techniques have been proposed to obtain the mechanical properties of PAGs. However, the range of the considered Poisson's ratio values remains quite large and no attempt has been made to propose an analytical relationship allowing the estimation of PAG Young's modulus when both bis-acrylamide and acrylamide concentrations are known. In order to complete the actual knowledge on the mechanical properties of PAGs, we took benefit of our original method based on the micropipette aspiration technique (Boudou et al., J. Biomech. 2006) for characterizing gels made with concentrations in the range 0.02% < or =[Bis]< or =0.20% and 3% < or =[Acry]< or =10%. We found that the PAGs Young's modulus varies nonlinearly with the acrylamide amount. Moreover, our study validates the quasi-incompressibility hypothesis usually made in studies using PAGs (mean Poisson's ratio of 0.480+/-0.012). More generally, and in agreement with data published by other groups, we propose an original nonlinear mathematical relationship allowing the computation of Young's modulus of PAG for any given acrylamide and bis-acrylamide amounts taken in the range of values we considered.Biorheology 01/2006; 43(6):721-8. · 1.93 Impact Factor