Fragility fractures in men with idiopathic osteoporosis are associated with undermineralization of the bone matrix without evidence of increased bone turnover.
ABSTRACT The pathogenesis of primary osteoporosis in younger individuals is still elusive. An important determinant of the biomechanical competence of bone is its material quality. In this retrospective study we evaluated bone material quality based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging to assess bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in bone biopsies of 25 male patients (aged 18-61 years) who sustained fragility fractures but were otherwise healthy. BMDD of cancellous bone was compared with previously established adult reference data. Complementary information was obtained by bone histomorphometry. The histomorphometric results showed a paucity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the bone surface in the majority of patients. BMDD revealed a significant shift to lower mineralization densities for cancellous bone values: CaMean (weighted mean Ca content, -5.9%), CaPeak (mode of the BMDD, -5.6%), and CaHigh (portion of fully mineralized bone, -76.8%) were decreased compared to normative reference; CaWidth (heterogeneity in mineralization, +18.5%) and CaLow (portion of low mineralized bone, +68.8; all P < 0.001) were significantly increased. The shift toward lower mineral content in the bone matrix in combination with reduced indices of bone formation and bone resorption suggests an inherent mineralization defect leading to undermineralized bone matrix, which might contribute to the susceptibility to fragility fractures of the patients. The alteration in bone material might be related to osteoblastic dysfunction and seems fundamentally different from that in high bone turnover osteoporosis with a negative bone balance.
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ABSTRACT: Bone is a complex and structured material; its mechanical behavior results from an interaction between the properties of each level of its structural hierarchy. The degree of mineralization of bone (bone density measured at tissue level) and the characteristics of the mineral deposited (apatite crystals) are major determinants of bone strength. Bone remodeling activity acts as a regulator of the degree of mineralization and of the distribution of mineral at the tissue level, directly impacting bone mechanical properties. Recent findings have highlighted the need to understand the underlying process occurring at the nanostructure level that may be independent of bone remodeling itself. A more global comprehension of bone qualities will need further works designed to characterize what are the consequences on whole bone strength of changes at nano- or microstructure levels relative to each other.Osteoporosis International 12/2012; · 4.58 Impact Factor
Article: Human bone material characterization: integrated imaging surface investigation of male fragility fractures.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The interrelation of calcium and phosphorus was evaluated as a function of bone material quality in femoral heads from male fragility fracture patients via surface analytical imaging as well as scanning microscopy techniques. A link between fragility fractures and increased calcium to phosphorus ratio was observed despite normal mineralization density distribution. Bone fragility in men has been recently recognized as a public health issue, but little attention has been devoted to bone material quality and the possible efficacy in fracture risk prevention. Clinical routine fracture risk estimations do not consider the quality of the mineralized matrix and the critical role played by the different chemical components that are present. This study uses a combination of different imaging and analytical techniques to gain insights into both the spatial distribution and the relationship of phosphorus and calcium in bone. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging techniques were used to investigate the relationship between calcium and phosphorus in un-embedded human femoral head specimens from fragility fracture patients and non-fracture age-matched controls. The inclusion of the bone mineral density distribution via backscattered scanning electron microscopy provides information about the mineralization status between the groups. A link between fragility fracture and increased calcium and decreased phosphorus in the femoral head was observed despite normal mineralization density distribution. Results exhibited significantly increased calcium to phosphorus ratio in the fragility fracture group, whereas the non-fracture control group ratio was in agreement with the literature value of 1.66 M ratio in mature bone. Our results highlight the potential importance of the relationship between calcium and phosphorus, especially in areas of new bone formation, when estimating fracture risk of the femoral head. The determination of calcium and phosphorus fractions in bone mineral density measurements may hold the key to better fracture risk assessment as well as more targeted therapies.Osteoporosis International 06/2011; 23(4):1297-309. · 4.58 Impact Factor