Article

Induction of Metastatic Gastric Cancer by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptorδ Activation

Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA.
PPAR Research (Impact Factor: 1.64). 12/2010; 2010:571783. DOI: 10.1155/2010/571783
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ) regulates a multiplicity of physiological processes associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and proliferation. One or more of these processes likely create risk factors associated with the ability of PPARδ agonists to promote tumorigenesis in some organs. In the present study, we describe a new gastric tumor mouse model that is dependent on the potent and highly selective PPARδ agonist GW501516 following carcinogen administration. The progression of gastric tumorigenesis was rapid as determined by magnetic resonance imaging and resulted in highly metastatic squamous cell carcinomas of the forestomach within two months. Tumorigenesis was associated with gene expression signatures indicative of cell adhesion, invasion, inflammation, and metabolism. Increased PPARδ expression in tumors correlated with increased PDK1, Akt, β-catenin, and S100A9 expression. The rapid development of metastatic gastric tumors in this model will be useful for evaluating preventive and therapeutic interventions in this disease.

2 Followers
 · 
148 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ) is a transcription factor that is associated with metabolic gene regulation and inflammation. It has been implicated in tumor promotion and in the regulation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). PDK1 is a key regulator of the AGC protein kinase family, which includes the proto-oncogene AKT/PKB implicated in several malignancies, including breast cancer. To assess the role of PDK1 in mammary tumorigenesis and its interaction with PPARδ, transgenic mice were generated in which PDK1 was expressed in mammary epithelium under the control of the MMTV enhancer/promoter region. Transgene expression increased pT308AKT and pS9GSK3β, but did not alter phosphorylation of mTOR, 4EBP1, ribosomal protein S6 and PKCα. The transgenic mammary gland also expressed higher levels of PPARδ and a gene expression profile resembling wild-type mice maintained on a diet containing the PPARδ agonist, GW501516. Both wild-type and transgenic mice treated with GW501516 exhibited accelerated rates of tumor formation that were more pronounced in transgenic animals. GW501516 treatment was accompanied by a distinct metabolic gene expression and metabolomic signature that was not present in untreated animals. GW501516-treated transgenic mice expressed higher levels of fatty acid and phospholipid metabolites than treated wild-type mice, suggesting the involvement of PDK1 in enhancing PPARδ-driven energy metabolism. These results reveal that PPARδ activation elicits a distinct metabolic and metabolomic profile in tumors that is in part related to PDK1 and AKT signaling.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(1):e16215. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0016215 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1, Ly6A) is a glycerophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that was identified as a murine marker of bone marrow stem cells. Although Sca-1 is widely used to enrich for stem and progenitor cells in various tissues, little is known about its function and associated signaling pathways in normal and malignant cells. Here, we report that the absence of Sca-1 in the mammary gland resulted in higher levels of PPARγ and PTEN, and a reduction of pSer84PPARγ, pERK1/2, and PPARδ. This phenotype correlated with markedly increased sensitivity of Sca-1 null mice to PPARγ agonist GW7845 and insensitivity to PPARδ agonist GW501516. Reduction of Sca-1 expression in mammary tumor cells by RNA interference resulted in a phenotype similar to the Sca-1 deficient mammary gland, as evidenced by increased PPARγ expression and transcriptional activity, resulting in part from a lesser susceptibility to proteasomal degradation. These data implicate Sca-1 as a negative regulator of the tumor suppressor effects of PPARγ.
    Cancer Prevention Research 09/2011; 5(1):51-60. DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0256 · 5.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence supports the existence of a subpopulation of cancer cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation into diverse cell lineages. These cancer stem-like or cancer-initiating cells (CICs) also demonstrate resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy and may function as a primary source of cancer recurrence. We report here on the isolation and in vitro propagation of multicellular ovarian cancer spheroids from a well-established ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR-3). The spheroid-derived cells (SDCs) display self-renewal potential, the ability to produce differentiated progeny, and increased expression of genes previously associated with CICs. SDCs also demonstrate higher invasiveness, migration potential, and enhanced resistance to standard anticancer agents relative to parental OVCAR-3 cells. Furthermore, SDCs display up-regulation of genes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), anticancer drug resistance and/or decreased susceptibility to apoptosis, as well as, down-regulation of genes typically associated with the epithelial cell phenotype and pro-apoptotic genes. Pathway and biological process enrichment analyses indicate significant differences between the SDCs and precursor OVCAR-3 cells in TGF-beta-dependent induction of EMT, regulation of lipid metabolism, NOTCH and Hedgehog signaling. Collectively, our results indicate that these SDCs will be a useful model for the study of ovarian CICs and for the development of novel CIC-targeted therapies.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 12/2011; 363(1-2):257-68. DOI:10.1007/s11010-011-1178-6 · 2.39 Impact Factor