ERG Transcription Factor as an Immunohistochemical Marker for Vascular Endothelial Tumors and Prostatic Carcinoma
ABSTRACT ERG, an ETS family transcription factor, is known to be expressed in endothelial cells, and oncogenic ERG gene fusions occur in subsets of prostatic carcinoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and Ewing sarcoma. In this study, we immunohistochemically investigated nuclear ERG expression using a new monoclonal antibody, CPDR ERG-MAb, that is highly specific for detecting ERG protein and ERG-expressing prostate carcinomas. A broad range of vascular endothelial (n = 250), other mesenchymal (n = 973), and epithelial tumors (n = 657) was examined to determine the use of ERG immunohistochemistry in surgical pathology. Only immunostains with ERG-positive normal endothelia (internal control) were considered valid, and only nuclear staining was considered to be positive. In adult tissues, ERG was restricted to endothelial cells and to a subset of bone marrow precursors, but early fetal mesenchyme and subpopulations of fetal cartilage were also positive. In vascular tumors, ERG was expressed in endothelia of all hemangiomas and lymphangiomas, and typically extensively expressed in 96 of 100 angiosarcomas, 42 of 43 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, and all 26 Kaposi sarcomas. Among nonvascular mesenchymal tumors, only blastic extramedullary myeloid tumors (7 of 10) and rare Ewing sarcomas (2 of 29) were positive. Among epithelial tumors, 30 of 66 prostatic adenocarcinomas showed focal-to-extensive ERG positivity, with no immunoreactivity in the normal prostate. Other carcinomas and epithelial tumors (n = 643) were ERG negative, with the exception of 1 of 42 large cell undifferentiated pulmonary carcinomas and 1 of 27 mesotheliomas, each of which showed focal nuclear ERG positivity. On the basis of the above observations, ERG is a highly specific new marker for benign and malignant vascular tumors. Among epithelial tumors, ERG shows a great promise as a marker to identify prostatic carcinoma in both primary and metastatic settings.
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ABSTRACT: The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) is an Ig containing cell adhesion molecule with remarkable structural conservation throughout metazoans. In insects, DSCAM has 38,000 potential isoforms that convey axon guidance, fasciculation and dendrite morphogenesis during neurodevelopment. In vertebrates, DSCAM is expressed throughout the nervous system and seems to also mediate proper axonal guidance and synaptogenesis without the isoform diversity found in insects. Differences in DSCAM function among several vertebrate species complicate the understanding of an evolutionarily conserved role during embryogenesis. We take advantage of the frog developmental model Xenopus tropicalis to study DSCAM function in early development by expression analysis and morpholino-mediated knockdown. Our results indicate that DSCAM is expressed early in development and restricted to the head and nervous system. Knockdown of protein expression results in early morphogenetic phenotypes characterized by failed gastrulation and improper posterior neural tube closure. Our results reveal a specific, fundamental role of DSCAM in early morphogenetic movements, presumably through its well-known role in homophilic cell adhesion. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.genesis 10/2014; DOI:10.1002/dvg.22804 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. The prognostic significance of ERG expression in prostate cancer (PCA) has generated mixed results. We sought to investigate the prognostic significance of ERG expression in a localized cohort of men with PCA. Material and Methods. We investigated ERG protein expression in a cohort of 198 men with localized PCA. ERG expression was correlated with patients' clinical outcome and several pathological parameters, including Gleason score (GS), pathological stage, surgical margin, and extra-capsular extension. Results. ERG expression was detected in 86/198 (43.4%) patients exclusively in neoplastic epithelium. Overall, ERG mean expression intensity was 1.01 ± 1.27 versus 0.37 ± 0.83 in acinar PCA compared to foamy type PCA (P < 0.001). In HGPIN, ERG intensity levels were comparable to those in foamy type PCA (0.13 ± 0.56) but significantly lower than those in acinar PCA (P < 0.001). ERG expression was significantly associated with extra-prostatic extension and higher pathological stage and showed a trend toward seminal vesicle invasion. Herein, ERG expression was documented in 50/131 (38.1%) patients with pT2 versus 30/55 (54.5%) patients with pT3 (P = 0.04). ERG association with higher pathological stage was more pronounced in patients with GS > 7. Grouping patients into those with GS ≤ 7 versus >7, there was no significant association between ERG expression and GS. Similarly, no association was present in relation to either surgical margins or postsurgical serum PSA levels. Conclusion. We report significant association between ERG protein levels and extra-prostatic extension and higher pathological stage. ERG expression is not associated with adverse clinical outcome and is of limited prognostic value in localized PCA.08/2013; 2013:786545. DOI:10.1155/2013/786545
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ABSTRACT: Small cell carcinoma of the prostate is both morphologically and immunohistochemically similar to small cell carcinoma of other organs such as the urinary bladder or lung. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion appears to be a highly specific alteration in prostatic carcinoma that is frequently shared by small cell carcinoma. In adenocarcinoma, immunohistochemistry for the ERG protein product has been reported to correlate well with the presence of the gene fusion, although in prostatic small cell carcinoma, this relationship is not completely understood. We evaluated 54 cases of small cell carcinoma of the prostate and compared TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion status by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to immunohistochemical staining with antibody to ERG. Of 54 cases of prostatic small cell carcinoma, 26 (48%) were positive for TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion by FISH and 12 (22%) showed overexpression of ERG protein by immunohistochemistry. Of the 26 cases positive by FISH, 11 were also positive for ERG protein by immunohistochemistry. One tumor was positive by immunohistochemistry but negative by FISH. Urinary bladder small cell carcinoma (n = 25) showed negative results by both methods; however, 2 of 14 small cell carcinomas of other organs (lung, head, and neck) showed positive immunohistochemistry but negative FISH. Positive staining for ERG by immunohistochemistry is present in a subset of prostatic small cell carcinomas and correlates with the presence of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. Therefore, it may be useful in confirming prostatic origin when molecular testing is not accessible. However, sensitivity and specificity of ERG immunohistochemistry in small cell carcinoma are decreased compared to FISH.Human pathology 07/2013; 44(10). DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2013.05.005 · 2.81 Impact Factor