IRBIT governs epithelial secretion in mice by antagonizing the WNK/SPAK kinase pathway.
ABSTRACT Fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion are fundamental functions of epithelia and determine bodily fluid volume and ionic composition, among other things. Secretion of ductal fluid and HCO(3)(-) in secretory glands is fueled by Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransport mediated by basolateral solute carrier family 4 member 4 (NBCe1-B) and by Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange mediated by luminal solute carrier family 26, member 6 (Slc26a6) and CFTR. However, the mechanisms governing ductal secretion are not known. Here, we have shown that pancreatic ductal secretion in mice is suppressed by silencing of the NBCe1-B/CFTR activator inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor-binding protein released with IP(3) (IRBIT) and by inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). In contrast, silencing the with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases and Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) increased secretion. Molecular analysis revealed that the WNK kinases acted as scaffolds to recruit SPAK, which phosphorylated CFTR and NBCe1-B, reducing their cell surface expression. IRBIT opposed the effects of WNKs and SPAK by recruiting PP1 to the complex to dephosphorylate CFTR and NBCe1-B, restoring their cell surface expression, in addition to stimulating their activities. Silencing of SPAK and IRBIT in the same ducts rescued ductal secretion due to silencing of IRBIT alone. These findings stress the pivotal role of IRBIT in epithelial fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion and provide a molecular mechanism by which IRBIT coordinates these processes. They also have implications for WNK/SPAK kinase-regulated processes involved in systemic fluid homeostasis, hypertension, and cystic fibrosis.
Article: Fluorescence studies on the interaction of inhibitor 2 and okadaic acid with the catalytic subunit of type 1 phosphoprotein phosphatases[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phosphatase inhibitor 2 was mutagenized and expressed in Escherichia coli to produce a protein with a single cysteinyl residue at position 129. The newly introduced sulfhydryl group was labeled with a maleimide derivative of coumarin (CPM). The resulting fluorescent inhibitor 2 molecule (CPM-I2) retains biological activity and binds to the catalytic subunit of type 1 phosphatase (PP1-C) with a Kd similar to the Ki of native I2 (2-3 nM). Fluorescence anisotropy data indicate that kinase FA (glycogen synthase kinase 3) does not dissociate the CPM-I2.PP1-C complex but rather causes a conformational change in the I2 molecule that is retained even after the CPM-I2 is displaced by an excess of native I2. The fluorescence data presented here also indicate that okadaic acid and I2 are competitive for binding to PP1-C, even after kinase FA treatment of the CPM-I2.PP1-C complex.Biochemistry 04/2002; 30(42). · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in the serine-threonine kinase WNK4 [with no lysine (K) 4] cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, a Mendelian disease featuring hypertension with hyperkalemia. In the kidney, WNK4 regulates the balance between NaCl reabsorption and K(+) secretion via variable inhibition of the thiazide-sensistive NaCl cotransporter and the K(+) channel ROMK. We now demonstrate expression of WNK4 mRNA and protein outside the kidney. In extrarenal tissues, WNK4 is found almost exclusively in polarized epithelia, variably associating with tight junctions, lateral membranes, and cytoplasm. Epithelia expressing WNK4 include sweat ducts, colonic crypts, pancreatic ducts, bile ducts, and epididymis. WNK4 is also expressed in the specialized endothelium of the blood-brain barrier. These epithelia and endothelium all play important roles in Cl(-) transport. Because WNK4 is known to regulate renal Cl(-) handling, we tested WNK4's effect on the activity of mediators of epithelial Cl(-) flux whose extrarenal expression overlaps with WNK4. WNK4 proved to be a potent inhibitor of the activity of both the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) and the Cl(-)/base exchanger SLC26A6 (CFEX) (>95% inhibition of NKCC1-mediated (86)Rb influx, P < 0.001; >80% inhibition of CFEX-mediated [(14)C] formate uptake, P < 0.001), mediators of Cl(-) flux across basolateral and apical membranes, respectively. In contrast, WNK4 showed no inhibition of pendrin, a related Cl(-)/base exchanger. These findings indicate a general role for WNK4 in the regulation of electrolyte flux in diverse epithelia. Moreover, they reveal that WNK4 regulates the activities of a diverse group of structurally unrelated ion channels, cotransporters, and exchangers.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2004; 101(7):2064-9. · 9.68 Impact Factor
Article: WNK1, a novel mammalian serine/threonine protein kinase lacking the catalytic lysine in subdomain II.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have cloned and characterized a novel mammalian serine/threonine protein kinase WNK1 (with no lysine (K)) from a rat brain cDNA library. WNK1 has 2126 amino acids and can be detected as a protein of approximately 230 kDa in various cell lines and rat tissues. WNK1 contains a small N-terminal domain followed by the kinase domain and a long C-terminal tail. The WNK1 kinase domain has the greatest similarity to the MEKK protein kinase family. However, overexpression of WNK1 in HEK293 cells exerts no detectable effect on the activity of known, co-transfected mitogen-activated protein kinases, suggesting that it belongs to a distinct pathway. WNK1 phosphorylates the exogenous substrate myelin basic protein as well as itself mostly on serine residues, confirming that it is a serine/threonine protein kinase. The demonstration of activity was striking because WNK1, and its homologs in other organisms lack the invariant catalytic lysine in subdomain II of protein kinases that is crucial for binding to ATP. A model of WNK1 using the structure of cAMP-dependent protein kinase suggests that lysine 233 in kinase subdomain I may provide this function. Mutation of this lysine residue to methionine eliminates WNK1 activity, consistent with the conclusion that it is required for catalysis. This distinct organization of catalytic residues indicates that WNK1 belongs to a novel family of serine/threonine protein kinases.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2000; 275(22):16795-801. · 4.77 Impact Factor