Containment of a country-wide outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Israeli hospitals via a nationally implemented intervention.
ABSTRACT During 2006, Israeli hospitals faced a clonal outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae that was not controlled by local measures. A nationwide intervention was launched to contain the outbreak and to introduce a strategy to control future dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals.
In March 2007, the Ministry of Health issued guidelines mandating physical separation of hospitalized carriers of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and dedicated staffing and appointed a professional task force charged with containment. The task force paid site visits at acute-care hospitals, evaluated infection-control policies and laboratory methods, supervised adherence to the guidelines via daily census reports on carriers and their conditions of isolation, provided daily feedback on performance to hospital directors, and intervened additionally when necessary. The initial intervention period was 1 April 2007-31 May 2008. The primary outcome measure was incidence of clinically diagnosed nosocomial CRE cases.
By 31 March 2007, 1275 patients were affected in 27 hospitals (175 cases per 1 million population). Prior to the intervention, the monthly incidence of nosocomial CRE was 55.5 cases per 100,000 patient-days. With the intervention, the continuous increase in the incidence of CRE acquisition was halted, and by May 2008, the number of new monthly cases was reduced to 11.7 cases per 100,000 patient-days (P<.001). There was a direct correlation between compliance with isolation guidelines and success in containment of transmission (P=.02). Compliance neutralized the effect of carrier prevalence on new incidence (P=.03).
A centrally coordinated intervention succeeded in containing a nationwide CRE outbreak after local measures failed. The intervention demonstrates the importance of strategic planning and national oversight in combating antimicrobial resistance.
SourceAvailable from: Aurora Garcia-Fernandez
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about the molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli (KPCEC). We aimed to describe the clonal structure and resistance mechanisms of KPCEC in a multicenter study. The study included 88 isolates from four medical centres in Israel: Tel Aviv Medical Center (n = 17), Laniado Medical Center (n = 12), Sha'are-Zedek Medical Center (n = 38), and Rambam Medical Center (n = 21). Twelve (14%) KPCEC were from clinical sites and 86% from surveillance cultures. The clonal structure was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and was highly diverse, with 79 and 45 different PFGE types and STs, respectively. The most common clones were ST-131 and ST-410, identified in 21 isolates (23%). Dominant clonal complexes (CCs) were CC131 (n = 16), CC410 (n = 14), CC10 (n = 17), and CC-69 (n = 6). The blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3 genes were identified in 68 and 20 isolates, respectively. All isolates were non-susceptible to ertapenem; 16 (18%) and 35 (40%) isolates were susceptible (minimal inhibitory concentration ≤1 mg/L) to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. Isolates were susceptible to colistin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 100%, 87%, 28%, 27%, and 21% of the cases, respectively. blaKPC-Harbouring plasmids from Tel Aviv Medical Center as well as from six CC-131 isolates from the other centres were studied by Inc and pMLST typing. Sixteen of the 20 blaKPC2-harbouring plasmids were of identical type, IncN-pMLST ST-15. In conclusion, the clonal structure of KPCEC in Israel is characterized by the predominance of known international extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing clones and by high intra- and inter-institutional diversity. This suggests that in Israel, clonal spread does not play a major role in the dissemination of KPCEC. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections are among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in nursing homes (NHs) and other long-term care facilities. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) represent an ever-increasing share of causative agents of infection, and their prevalence in NHs is now just as high as in acute care facilities, or even higher. Indeed, NHs are now considered a major reservoir of MDROs for the community at large. Asymptomatic colonization is usually a prerequisite to development of symptomatic infection. While progress has been made in defining epidemiology of MDROs in NHs, few studies have evaluated the role of changing health care delivery in introducing and further transmitting MDROs in this setting. Furthermore, the factors influencing the spread of colonization and the key prognostic indicators leading to symptomatic infections in the burgeoning short stay population need to be explored further. The difficulty of this task lies in the heterogeneity of NHs in terms of focus of care, organization and resources, and on the diversity among the many MDRO species encountered, which harbor different resistance genes and with a different prevalence depending on the geographic location, local antimicrobial pressure, and residents risk factors such as use of indwelling devices, functional disability, wounds, and other comorbidities. We present literature findings on the scope and importance of colonization as a pathway to infection with MDROs in NHs, underline important open questions that need further research, and discuss the strength of the evidence for current and proposed screening, prevention, and management interventions.03/2015; 4(1). DOI:10.1007/s13670-015-0120-2