Article

EAU Guidelines on Prostate Cancer. Part II: Treatment of Advanced, Relapsing, and Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Department of Urology, Clinique Mutualiste de la Loire, Saint Etienne, France.
European Urology (Impact Factor: 12.48). 04/2011; 59(4):572-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2011.01.025
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Our aim is to present a summary of the 2010 version of the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on the treatment of advanced, relapsing, and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
The working panel performed a literature review of the new data emerging from 2007 to 2010. The guidelines were updated, and the levels of evidence (LEs) and/or grades of recommendation (GR) were added to the text based on a systematic review of the literature, which included a search of online databases and bibliographic reviews.
Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists are the standard of care in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Although LHRH antagonists decrease testosterone without any testosterone surge, their clinical benefit remains to be determined. Complete androgen blockade has a small survival benefit of about 5%. Intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) results in equivalent oncologic efficacy when compared with continuous androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in well-selected populations. In locally advanced and metastatic PCa, early ADT does not result in a significant survival advantage when compared with delayed ADT. Relapse after local therapy is defined by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values >0.2 ng/ml following radical prostatectomy (RP) and >2 ng/ml above the nadir after radiation therapy (RT). Therapy for PSA relapse after RP includes salvage RT at PSA levels <0.5 ng/ml and salvage RP or cryosurgical ablation of the prostate in radiation failures. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging and (11)C-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) are of limited importance if the PSA is <2.5 ng/ml; bone scans and CT can be omitted unless PSA is >20 ng/ml. Follow-up after ADT should include screening for the metabolic syndrome and an analysis of PSA and testosterone levels. Treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) includes second-line hormonal therapy, novel agents, and chemotherapy with docetaxel at 75 mg/m(2) every 3 wk. Cabazitaxel as a second-line therapy for relapse after docetaxel might become a future option. Zoledronic acid and denusomab can be used in men with CRPC and osseous metastases to prevent skeletal-related complications.
The knowledge in the field of advanced, metastatic, and CRPC is rapidly changing. These EAU guidelines on PCa summarise the most recent findings and put them into clinical practice. A full version is available at the EAU office or online at www.uroweb.org.

4 Followers
 · 
489 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) and its signaling pathway play an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). In the setting of primary treatment of PCa with radiotherapy (RT), where the AR can be expected to be of more importance, studies evaluating the AR expression are lacking. The goal of this research is to evaluate AR protein expression in hormone-naive PCa patients treated by RT and investigate its possible prognostic role. Primary biopsy samples of 18 patients treated with primary RT were analyzed including the corresponding clinical information. AR protein expression of the tumor epithelium (with highest Gleason pattern) and the surrounding stroma was quantified using the Quick score for steroid receptors. The differential expression between epithelium and stroma, respectively, between tumor and normal tissue (ΔTumor − ΔBenign >2 versus ≤2), was predictive for clinical progression-free survival in the biopsy samples (P = 0.014). Preliminary results of this research show already a promising role of differential AR expression in predicting clinical relapse after PCa treatment with primary EBRT. Further research is needed to validate these findings. Hopefully this can lead to a better understanding of PCa evolution and eventually lead to better therapy strategies.
    01/2015; 2015:1-8. DOI:10.1155/2015/812815
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The androgen deprivation therapy is the standard treatment for advanced stages. Unfortunately, virtually all tumors become resistant to androgen withdrawal. The progression to castration-resistance is not fully understood, although a recent paper has suggested translationally controlled tumor protein to be implicated in the process. The present study was designed to investigate the role of this protein in prostate cancer, focusing on the correlation between its expression level with tumor differentiation and response to treatment. We retrieved 292 prostatic cancer specimens; of these 153 had been treated only by radical prostatectomy and 139 had undergone radical prostatectomy after neoadjuvant treatment with combined androgen blockade therapy. Non-neoplastic controls were represented by 102 prostatic peripheral zone specimens. In untreated patients, the expression of the protein, evaluated by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, was significantly higher in tumor specimens than in non-neoplastic control, increasing as Gleason pattern and score progressed. In treated prostates, the staining was correlated with the response to treatment. An association between protein expression and the main clinicopathological factors involved in prostate cancer aggressiveness was identified. These findings suggest that the protein may be a promising prognostic factor and a target for therapy.
    BioMed Research International 01/2015; 2015:985950. DOI:10.1155/2015/985950 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maintaining bone health remains a clinical challenge in patients with prostate cancer (PC) who are at risk of developing metastatic bone disease and increased bone loss due to hormone ablation therapy. In patients with cancer-treatment induced bone loss (CTIBL), antiresorptive agents have been shown to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and to reduce the risk of fractures. For patients with bone metastases, both zoledronic acid and denosumab delay skeletal related events (SREs) in the castration resistant stage of disease. Novel agents targeting the Wnt inhibitors dickkopf-1 and sclerostin are currently under investigation for the treatment of osteoporosis and malignant bone disease. New antineoplastic drugs such as abiraterone, enzalutamide, and Radium-223 are capable of further delaying SREs in patients with advanced PC. The benefit of antiresorptive treatment for patients with castration sensitive PC appears to be limited. Recent trials on the use of zoledronic acid for the prevention of bone metastases failed to be successful, whereas denosumab delayed the occurrence of bone metastases by a median of 4.1 months. Currently, the use of antiresorptive drugs to prevent bone metastases still remains a field of controversies and further trials are needed to identify patient subgroups that may profit from early therapy.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2015; 2015:838202. DOI:10.1155/2015/838202 · 1.52 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
264 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014