Identification of Aneuploidy-Selective Antiproliferation Compounds

David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 33.12). 02/2011; 144(4):499-512. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.01.017
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aneuploidy, an incorrect chromosome number, is a hallmark of cancer. Compounds that cause lethality in aneuploid, but not euploid, cells could therefore provide new cancer therapies. We have identified the energy stress-inducing agent AICAR, the protein folding inhibitor 17-AAG, and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine as exhibiting this property. AICAR induces p53-mediated apoptosis in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) trisomic for chromosome 1, 13, 16, or 19. AICAR and 17-AAG, especially when combined, also show efficacy against aneuploid human cancer cell lines. Our results suggest that compounds that interfere with pathways that are essential for the survival of aneuploid cells could serve as a new treatment strategy against a broad spectrum of human tumors.

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    ABSTRACT: Aneuploid genomes, characterized by unbalanced chromosome stoichiometry (karyotype), are associated with cancer malignancy and drug resistance of pathogenic fungi. The phenotypic diversity resulting from karyotypic diversity endows the cell population with superior adaptability. We show here, using a combination of experimental data and a general stochastic model, that the degree of phenotypic variation, thus evolvability, escalates with the degree of overall growth suppression. Such scaling likely explains the challenge of treating aneuploidy diseases with a single stress-inducing agent. Instead, we propose the design of an "evolutionary trap" (ET) targeting both karyotypic diversity and fitness. This strategy entails a selective condition "channeling" a karyotypically divergent population into one with a predominant and predictably drugable karyotypic feature. We provide a proof-of-principle case in budding yeast and demonstrate the potential efficacy of this strategy toward aneuploidy-based azole resistance in Candida albicans. By analyzing existing pharmacogenomics data, we propose the potential design of an ET against glioblastoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Abnormal imbalanced chromosomal content, or aneuploidy, strongly affects the physiology of eukaryotic cells. The consequences of these effects are frequently detrimental, in particular in Metazoans. In humans, aneuploidy has been causatively linked to pathological conditions such as spontaneous abortions, trisomy syndromes and cancer. However, only in recent years have we witnessed an unraveling of the complex phenotypes that are caused by aneuploidy. Importantly, it has become apparent that aneuploidy evokes global and uniform changes that cannot be explained by the altered expression of the specific genes located on aneuploid chromosomes. Recent discoveries show that aneuploidy negatively affects protein folding; in particular, the functions of the molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) and the upstream regulator of heat shock-induced transcription, Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1), are impaired. Here we discuss the possible causes and consequences of this impairment and propose that the protein folding stress instigated by aneuploidy may be a common feature of conditions as variable as cancer and trisomy syndromes.
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic instability is a hallmark of aneuploidy in budding and fission yeast. All aneuploid yeast strains analyzed to date harbor elevated levels of Rad52-GFP foci, a sign of DNA damage. Here we investigate how continuously elevated levels of DNA damage impact aneuploid cells. We show that Rad52-GFP foci form during S phase, consistent with the observation that DNA replication initiation and elongation are impaired in some aneuploid yeast strains. We furthermore find that although DNA damage is low in aneuploid cells, it nevertheless has dramatic consequences. Many aneuploid yeast strains adapt to DNA damage and undergo mitosis despite the presence of unrepaired DNA leading to cell death. Wild-type cells exposed to low levels of DNA damage exhibit a similar phenotype indicating that adaptation to low levels of unrepaired DNA is a general property of the cell's response to DNA damage. Our results indicate that by causing low levels of DNA damage, whole chromosome aneuploidies lead to DNA breaks that persist into mitosis. Such breaks are the substrate for translocations and deletions that are a hallmark of cancer. © 2015 by The American Society for Cell Biology.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 02/2015; 26(8). DOI:10.1091/mbc.E14-10-1442 · 4.55 Impact Factor

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