The liposome-incorporating cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guein can directly enhance the susceptibility of cancer cells to lymphokine-activated killer cells through up-regulation of natural-killer group 2, member D ligands
ABSTRACT • To conduct a preclinical evaluation of the ability of natural killer cells to cytolyze bladder cancer cells that were modified to show enhanced expression of natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) ligands by R8-liposome-bacillus Calmette-Guéin (BCG)-cell wall skeleton (CWS) treatment.
• The T24 cells and RT-112 cells were co-cultured with R8-liposome-BCG-CWS and BCG for 2, 4, or 6 h, and then the surface expression of NKG2D ligands was analyzed using TaqMan real-time quantitative RT-PCR. • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained with a conventional preparation kit, and then lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells were generated from these purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells via interleukin-2 stimulation. • The anti-tumour effect of LAK cells against untreated and R8-liposome-BCG-CWS co-cultured with cells of the human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and RT-112 was analyzed using the cytotoxic WST-8 assay method at 4 h of culture at various effector/target (E : T) ratios.
• Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain B (MICB) expression was increased ≈1.5-fold on T24 cells and RT-112 cells with BCG. • UL-16-binding protein (ULBP) 1 expression was also increased ≈1.5-fold on T24 cells and RT-112 cells with BCG. R8-liposome-BCG-CWS increased the surface expression of MICB 2.2-fold on T24 cells but did not increase it significantly on RT-112 cells. • ULBP1 expression was increased ≈2.2-fold on RT-112 cells, although no differences were observed between the expression of ULBP2 and 3 with R8-liposome-BCG-CWS. • T24 cells that were co-cultured with R8-liposome-BCG-CWS showed an ≈1.3-fold increase in sensitivity to cytolysis by LAK cells at an E : T ratio of 4 and RT-112 cells showed an ≈1.4-fold increase at an E : T ratio of 2.
• In the present study, the induction of surface NKG2D ligands by R8-liposome-BCG-CWS rendered cancer cells more susceptible to cytolysis by LAK cells. • T24 cells and RT-112 cells, even when cultured singly in the absence of immune cells, can directly respond to R8-liposome-BCG-CWS. • The results obtained in the present study may therefore indicate a novel adoptive immunotherapy against bladder cancers.
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ABSTRACT: Since the first report in 1976, accumulated clinical evidence has supported intravesical BCG therapy as one of the standard methods of management of intermediate- and high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Despite its efficacy, intravesical BCG therapy is associated with a variety of adverse events (AEs), most of which are tolerable or controllable with supportive care. However, some patients receiving intravesical BCG therapy may be experience uncommon but severe AEs, leading to cessation of BCG therapy. Not all, but most severe AEs result from either local or systemic infection with live BCG. Intravesical instillation of BCG elicits multiple immune reactions, although the precise immunological mechanism of BCG therapy is not clear. It is convenient to separate the complex reactions to the following three categories: infection of urothelial cells or bladder cancer cells, induction of immune reactions, and induction of antitumor effects. Recently, our knowledge about each category has increased. Based on this understanding, predictors of the efficacy of intravesical BCG therapy, such as urinary cytokine measurement and cytokine gene polymorphism, have been investigated. Recently, preclinical studies using a novel engineered mycobacterium vaccine have been conducted to overcome the limitations of BCG therapy. One approach is Th1 cytokine-expressing recombinant forms of BCG; another approach is development of non-live bacterial agents to avoid AEs due to live BCG infection. We also briefly describe our approach using an octaarginine-modified liposome-incorporating BCG cell wall component to develop future substitutes for live BCG.Cancer Science 11/2012; 104(1). DOI:10.1111/cas.12075 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmett-Guerin cell wall skeleton (BCG-CWS) could be used to replace live BCG as a bladder cancer drug. However, because BCG-CWS is poorly soluble, has a strong-negative charge, very high molecular weight and heterogeneity in size of tens of μm, it cannot be used in such an application. We report herein on the development of a novel packaging method that permits BCG-CWS to be encapsulated into 166nm-sized lipid particles. The BCG-CWS encapsulated nano particle (CWS-NP) has a high uniformity and can be easily dispersed. Thus, it has the potential for use as a packaging method that would advance the scope of applications of BCG-CWS as a bladder cancer drug. In a functional evaluation, CWS-NP was efficiently taken up by mouse bladder tumor cells (MBT-2) in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing MBT-2 tumors. Moreover, intravesically administered CWS-NP showed significant antitumor effects in a rat model with in naturally developed bladder cancer. An enhancement in Th1 differentiation by CWS-NP was also confirmed in human T cells. In conclusion, CWS-NP represents a promising delivery system for BCG-CWS for clinical development as a potent bladder cancer drug.Journal of Controlled Release 12/2013; 176(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.12.027 · 7.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The knowledge of tumor biology and the biomechanical properties of the urothelium have led to significant advances in the development of intravesical therapy for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Targeted therapy improves the efficacy and decreases the side effects of antineoplastic agents. Nanoparticles that target antitumor agents to the urothelial cells have allowed for improved delivery of these agents to tumor cells. Gene therapy is another strategy that has allowed for a targeted induction of an antitumor response. Finally, engineering of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine aimed to minimize the potential side effects associated with this treatment. These novel approaches hold promise for decreasing the rate of progression and recurrence of NMIBC.Molecular and Clinical Oncology 09/2014; 2(5):656-660. DOI:10.3892/mco.2014.314