Long-Term Opioid Blockade and Hedonic Response: Preliminary Data from Two Open-Label Extension Studies with Extended-Release Naltrexone
ABSTRACT The emergence of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) raises the opportunity to explore the role of endorphin blockade on hedonic response during long-term alcohol dependence treatment. A hedonic survey was administered to 74 alcohol dependent patients treated for an average of 3.5 years with nearly continuous month-long intramuscular XR-NTX. The paper-and-pencil, one-time survey asked patients about the degree of pleasure they experienced in the past 90 days with drinking alcohol, sex, exercise and other daily activities. The data revealed lower pleasure ratings for alcohol than for sex, exercise and 10 other common activities. Mean responses to drinking alcohol and gambling were significantly lower than to listening to music, sex, reading, being with friends, eating good food, eating spicy food, and playing video/card games. This effect was independent of XR-NTX dose or duration. Although this exploratory study lacked baseline data, a comparison group or control for the impact of patient discontinuation, the data indicate the feasibility of examining long-term hedonic response in recovery. The differential hedonic ratings suggest that, in patients who persist with long-term continuous therapy, XR-NTX may selectively inhibit the pleasure associated with drinking alcohol, compared to a variety of other activities.
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ABSTRACT: Substance addiction is a maladaptive behavior characterized by compulsive and uncontrolled self-administration of a substance (drug). Years of research indicate that addictive behavior is the result of complex interactions between the drug, the user, and the environment in which the drug is used; therefore, addiction cannot simply be attributed to the neurobiological actions of a drug. However, despite the obvious complexity of addictive behavior, animal models have both advanced understanding of addiction and contributed importantly to the development of medications to treat this disease. We briefly review recent animal models used to study drug addiction and the contribution of data generated by these animal models for the clinical treatment of addictive disorders.ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 03/2012; 53(1):4-13. DOI:10.1093/ilar.53.1.4 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that opioid antagonists like naltrexone are efficient in reducing heavy drinking. The neurobiological mechanism by which opioid modulators affect drinking behavior is based on the strong connection between the endogenous opioid system, the dopamine system and the influence of the CNS stress response. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an overview of the pathophysiological role of the opioid system in alcohol dependence and the neurobiological mechanisms of possible pharmacological interventions. An extensive Medline and Internet research was performed to retrieve information on existing and currently investigated opioid modulators. The findings were assessed critically and interpreted with regard to an individualized therapy for alcohol dependence. EXPERT OPINION: The opioid system is of crucial importance in the genesis and maintenance of alcohol dependence. Naltrexone- and to a lesser extent nalmefene- is an agent that modulates opioidergic transmission in the CNS and it shows a limited but well-studied efficacy in treating alcohol dependence. Several agents (LY2196044, ALKS-29, ALKS-33) that are currently undergoing Phase II and Phase III studies are of interest but first their efficacy must be proved in clinical practice.Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 06/2011; 20(8):1073-86. DOI:10.1517/13543784.2011.592139 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Addiction to drugs is a chronic, relapsing brain disease that has major medical, social, and economic complications. It has been established that genetic factors contribute to the vulnerability to develop drug addiction and to the effectiveness of its treatment. Identification of these factors may increase our understanding of the disorders, help in the development of new treatments and advance personalized medicine. In this review, we will describe the genetics of the major genes of the opioid system (opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands) in connection to addiction to opioids, cocaine, alcohol and methamphetamines. Particular emphasis is given to association and functional studies of specific variants. We will provide information on the sample populations and the size of each study, as well as a list of the variants implicated in association with addiction-related phenotypes, and with the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for addiction.Human Genetics 05/2012; 131(6):823-42. DOI:10.1007/s00439-012-1172-4 · 4.52 Impact Factor