MicroRNA identity and abundance in developing swine adipose tissue as determined by Solexa sequencing.
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ∼22-nt regulatory RNAs that regulate the stability and translation of cognate mRNAs. MiRNAs participate in the regulation of adipogenesis, and identification of the full repertoire of miRNAs expressed in adipose tissue is likely to significantly increase our understanding of adipose tissue growth and development. Here, we adopted a deep sequencing approach to determine the identity and abundance of miRNAs in developing swine adipose tissue. Via this approach, we identified the sequences and relative expression levels of 227 conserved miRNAs (of which 59 were novel) and 66 potential porcine miRNAs. The expression levels displayed a large range, as reflected by the number of sequence reads, which varied from several counts for rare miRNAs to several million reads for the most abundant miRNAs. The abundant miRNAs principally belonged to 32 miRNA gene families, including miR-143, miR-103, let-7, and miR-148. Of the conserved miRNAs, 93 miRNAs were up-regulated and 33 miRNAs were down-regulated in the adult pig adipose tissue. Moreover, we observed sequence variants and seed edits of the miRNAs. KEGG pathway analysis and GO term enrichment suggested that highly expressed miRNAs are involved in adipose tissue development, signal transduction, cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix communication, neural development and function, and lipid metabolism including carboxylic acid, oxoacid, fatty acid, steroid, glycerolipid, alcohol and phospholipid metabolism. Our results expand the number of known porcine miRNAs and provide a thorough account of the miRNA transcriptome in porcine adipose tissue.
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ABSTRACT: The adipocyte plays a critical role in energy balance. Adipose tissue growth involves an increase in adipocyte size and the formation of new adipocytes from precursor cells. For the last 20 years, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of adipocyte differentiation have been extensively studied using preadipocyte culture systems. Committed preadipocytes undergo growth arrest and subsequent terminal differentiation into adipocytes. This is accompanied by a dramatic increase in expression of adipocyte genes including adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and lipid-metabolizing enzymes. Characterization of regulatory regions of adipose-specific genes has led to the identification of the transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), which play a key role in the complex transcriptional cascade during adipocyte differentiation. Growth and differentiation of preadipocytes is controlled by communication between individual cells or between cells and the extracellular environment. Various hormones and growth factors that affect adipocyte differentiation in a positive or negative manner have been identified. In addition, components involved in cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions such as preadipocyte factor-1 and extracellular matrix proteins are also pivotal in regulating the differentiation process. Identification of these molecules has yielded clues to the biochemical pathways that ultimately result in transcriptional activation via PPAR-gamma and C/EBP. Studies on the regulation of the these transcription factors and the mode of action of various agents that influence adipocyte differentiation will reveal the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development.Physiological Reviews 08/1998; 78(3):783-809. · 30.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Expanded adipose tissue mass increases the risk for many clinical conditions including diabetes, hypertension, coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, and some forms of cancer. Therefore, it is imperative that we understand the mechanisms by which fat pads expand. The enlargement of fat cells during the development of obesity has been previously hypothesized to be a triggering factor for the proliferation of new fat cells. There is now a preponderance of evidence that adipose tissue is a source of growth factors such as IGF-I, IGF binding proteins, TNF alpha, angiotensin II, and MCSF that are capable of stimulating proliferation. The relative importance of these autocrine/paracrine factors in the normal control of preadipocyte proliferation is unknown. In addition, the proliferative response of preadipocytes to the paracrine milieu is undoubtedly modulated by neural inputs to fat tissue and/or serum factors. Together, these multiple regulatory controls orchestrate overall and region-specific adipose tissue cellularity responses associated with the development of hyperplastic obesity. Both in vivo and in vitro studies are needed to understand the complex, interacting physiological mechanisms by which growth of this important organ is regulated.Obesity Reviews 12/2001; 2(4):239-54. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that are between 21 and 25 nucleotides in length and repress gene function through interactions with target mRNAs. The genomes of metazoans encode on the order of several hundred miRNAs, but the processes they regulate have been defined for only two in C. elegans. We searched for new inhibitors of apoptotic cell death by testing existing collections of P element insertion lines for their ability to enhance a small-eye phenotype associated with eye-specific expression of the Drosophila cell death activator Reaper. Here we report the identification of the Drosophila miRNA mir-14 as a cell death suppressor. Loss of mir-14 enhances Reaper-dependent cell death, whereas ectopic expression suppresses cell death induced by multiple stimuli. Animals lacking mir-14 are viable. However, they are stress sensitive and have a reduced lifespan. Mir-14 mutants have elevated levels of the apoptotic effector caspase Drice, suggesting one potential site of action. Mir-14 also regulates fat metabolism. Deletion of mir-14 results in animals with increased levels of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol, whereas increases in mir-14 copy number have the converse effect. We discuss possible relationships between these phenotypes.Current Biology 05/2003; 13(9):790-5. · 9.49 Impact Factor