Age-related skeletal muscle decline is similar in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.

Department of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences (Impact Factor: 5.42). 03/2011; 66(3):332-40. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glq228
Source: PubMed


Skeletal muscle (SM) mass decreases with advanced age and with disease in HIV infection. It is unknown whether age-related muscle loss is accelerated in the current era of antiretroviral therapy and which factors might contribute to muscle loss among HIV-infected adults. We hypothesized that muscle mass would be lower and decline faster in HIV-infected adults than in similar-aged controls.
Whole-body (1)H-magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify regional and total SM in 399 HIV-infected and 204 control men and women at baseline and 5 years later. Multivariable regression identified associated factors.
At baseline and Year 5, total SM was lower in HIV-infected than control men. HIV-infected women were similar to control women at both time points. After adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, and total adipose tissue, HIV infection was associated with lower Year 5 SM in men and higher SM in women compared with controls. Average overall 5-year change in total SM was small and age related, but rate of change was similar in HIV-infected and control men and women. CD4 count and efavirenz use in HIV-infected participants were associated with increasing SM, whereas age and stavudine use were associated with decreasing SM.
Muscle mass was lower in HIV-infected men compared with controls, whereas HIV-infected women had slightly higher SM than control women after multivariable adjustment. We found evidence against substantially faster SM decline in HIV infected versus similar-aged controls. SM gain was associated with increasing CD4 count, whereas stavudine use may contribute to SM loss.

Download full-text


Available from: Kevin E Yarasheski, Jan 06, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Unintentional loss of weight and muscle due to aging and disease has been associated with increased mortality. Wasting and weight loss occur in HIV infection even in the modern era of effective antiretroviral therapy. We determined the association of MRI-measured regional and total skeletal muscle and adipose tissue with 5-year, all-cause mortality in 922 HIV-infected persons in the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM). After 5 years of follow-up, HIV-infected participants with arm skeletal muscle in the lowest tertile had a mortality rate of 23%, compared with 11 and 8% for those in the middle and highest tertiles. After multivariable adjustment for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, HIV-related factors, inflammatory markers, and renal disease, we found that lower arm skeletal muscle, lower leg skeletal muscle and higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were each independently associated with increased mortality. Those in the lowest tertile of arm or leg skeletal muscle had higher odds of death [arm: odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-4.0; leg: OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8] compared with the highest respective tertiles. Those in the highest tertile of VAT had 2.1-fold higher odds of death (95% CI 1.1-4.0) compared with the lowest VAT tertile. Lower muscle mass and central adiposity appear to be important risk factors for mortality in HIV-infected individuals. A substantial proportion of this risk may be unrecognized because of the current reliance on body mass index in clinical practice.
    AIDS (London, England) 05/2011; 25(11):1405-14. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32834884e6 · 5.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As a result of the advances in antiretroviral therapy, the life span of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has increased dramatically. Attendant to these effects are signs of premature aging with notable changes in the musculoskeletal system. Although changes in bone and fat distribution have been studied extensively, far less is known about changes in muscle. This study examined the extent of low muscle mass (LMM) and its relationship with low bone mineral density (BMD) and lipodystrophy (LD) in HIV-positive males. As such, HIV-positive males on therapy or treatment naive underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry total body composition measurements. Appendicular lean mass/(height)2 and lowest 20% of residuals from regression analysis were used to define LMM. BMD criteria defined osteopenia/osteoporosis, and the percent central fat/percent lower extremity ratio defined LD. Several potential risk factors were assessed through chart review. Sixty-six males (57 with treatment and 9 treatment naive) volunteered. Treated individuals were older than naive (44 vs 34 yr) and had HIV longer (108 vs 14 mo). When definitions for sarcopenia (SP) in elderly individuals were applied, the prevalence of LMM was 21.9% and 18.8% depending on the definition used. Low BMD was present in 68.2% of participants. LD with a cutoff of 1.5 and 1.961 was present in 54.7% and 42.2% of participants, respectively. LMM and LD were negatively associated. In conclusion, this study shows that LMM is common in males with HIV and that SP affecting muscle function could be present in a substantial number of individuals. Future research needs to examine what impact decreased muscle mass and function has on morbidity, physical function, and quality of life in individuals with HIV.
    Journal of Clinical Densitometry 12/2011; 15(2):224-32. DOI:10.1016/j.jocd.2011.10.003 · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There has been speculation that chronic HIV infection is a condition of accelerated aging that may lead to early onset of disease in multiple organ systems. The neuromuscular disorders of HIV, in particular distal symmetric polyneuropathy and myopathies, are also seen in the general population among older patients. As the HIV-infected population ages, there may be deleterious synergistic effects of age and chronic HIV infection on the brain, peripheral nerve, and muscle. In this review, we explore commonalities between the clinical features and putative mechanisms of neuromuscular disorders and HIV.
    Journal of NeuroVirology 12/2011; 18(4):331-8. DOI:10.1007/s13365-011-0074-x · 2.60 Impact Factor
Show more