Elevated CO2 effects on canopy and soil water flux parameters measured using a large chamber in crops grown with free-air CO2 enrichment.
ABSTRACT An arable crop rotation (winter barley-sugar beet-winter wheat) was exposed to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentrations ([CO(2) ]) using a FACE facility (Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment) during two rotation periods. The atmospheric [CO(2) ] of the treatment plots was elevated to 550 ppm during daylight hours (T>5°C). Canopy transpiration (E(C) ) and conductance (G(C) ) were measured at selected intervals (>10% of total growing season) using a dynamic CO(2) /H(2) O chamber measuring system. Plant available soil water content (gravimetry and TDR probes) and canopy microclimate conditions were recorded in parallel. Averaged across both growing seasons, elevated [CO(2) ] reduced E(C) by 9%, 18% and 12%, and G(C) by 9%, 17% and 12% in barley, sugar beet and wheat, respectively. Both global radiation (Rg) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) were the main driving forces of E(C) , whereas G(C) was mostly related to Rg. The responses of E(C) and especially G(C) to [CO(2) ] enrichment were insensitive to weather conditions and leaf area index. However, differences in LAI between plots counteracted the [CO(2) ] impact on E(C) and thus, at least in part, explained the variability of seasonal [CO(2) ] responses between crops and years. As a consequence of lower transpirational canopy water loss, [CO(2) ] enrichment increased plant available soil water content in the course of the season by ca. 15 mm. This was true for all crops and years. Lower transpirational cooling due to a [CO(2) ]-induced reduction of E(C) increased canopy surface and air temperature by up to 2 °C and 0.5 °C, respectively. This is the first study to address effects of FACE on both water fluxes at canopy scale and water status of a European crop rotation.
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ABSTRACT: In addition to influencing climatic conditions directly through radiative forcing, increasing carbon dioxide concentration influences the climate system through its effects on plant physiology. Plant stomata generally open less widely under increased carbon dioxide concentration, which reduces transpiration and thus leaves more water at the land surface. This driver of change in the climate system, which we term 'physiological forcing', has been detected in observational records of increasing average continental runoff over the twentieth century. Here we use an ensemble of experiments with a global climate model that includes a vegetation component to assess the contribution of physiological forcing to future changes in continental runoff, in the context of uncertainties in future precipitation. We find that the physiological effect of doubled carbon dioxide concentrations on plant transpiration increases simulated global mean runoff by 6 per cent relative to pre-industrial levels; an increase that is comparable to that simulated in response to radiatively forced climate change (11 +/- 6 per cent). Assessments of the effect of increasing carbon dioxide concentrations on the hydrological cycle that only consider radiative forcing will therefore tend to underestimate future increases in runoff and overestimate decreases. This suggests that freshwater resources may be less limited than previously assumed under scenarios of future global warming, although there is still an increased risk of drought. Moreover, our results highlight that the practice of assessing the climate-forcing potential of all greenhouse gases in terms of their radiative forcing potential relative to carbon dioxide does not accurately reflect the relative effects of different greenhouse gases on freshwater resources.Nature 09/2007; 448(7157):1037-41. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Responses of leaf stomatal conductance to light, humidity and temperature were characterized for winter wheat and barely grown at ambient (about 350 μmol mol-1 in the daytime), ambient + 175 and ambient + 350 μmol mol-1 concentrations of carbon dioxide in open-topped chambers in field plots over a three year period. Stomatal responses to environment were determined by direct manipulation of single environmental factors, and those results were compared with responses derived from natural day to day variation in mid-day stomatal conductance. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the magnitude of reduction in stomatal conductance at elevated [CO2], and to assess whether the relative response of conductance to elevated [CO2] was constant across light, humidity and temperature conditions. The results indicated that light, humidity and temperature all significantly affected the relative decrease in stomatal conductance at elevated [CO2]. The relative decrease in conductance with elevated [CO2] was greater at low light, low water vapour pressure difference, and high temperature in both species. For measurements made at saturating light near mid-day, the ratio of mid-day stomatal conductances at doubled [CO2] to that at ambient [CO2] ranged from 0.42 to 0.86, with a mean of 0.66 in barley, and from 0.33 to 0.80, with a mean of 0.56 in wheat. Day-to-day variation in the relative effect of elevated [CO2] on conductance was correlated with the relative stimulation of [CO2] assimilation rate and with temperature. Some limitations of multiple linear regression, multiplicative, and 'Ball-Berry' models as summaries of the data are discussed. In barley, a better fit to the models occurred in individual years than for the combined data, and in wheat a better fit to the models occurred when data from near the end of the season were removed.01/2000;
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ABSTRACT: Reductions in leaf stomatal conductance with rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) could reduce water use by vegetation and potentially alter climate. Crop plants have among the largest reductions in stomatal conductance at elevated [CO2]. The relative reduction in stomatal conductance caused by a given increase in [CO2] is often not constant within a day nor between days, but may vary considerably with light, temperature and humidity. Species also differ in response, with a doubling of [CO2] reducing mean midday conductances by <15% in some crop species to >50% in others. Elevated [CO2] increases leaf area index throughout the growing season in some species. Simulations, and measurements in free air carbon dioxide enrichment systems both indicate that the relatively large reductions in stomatal conductance in crops would translate into reductions of <10% in evapotranspiration, partly because of increases in temperature and decreases in humidity in the air around crop leaves. The reduction in evapotranspiration in crops is similar to that in other types of vegetation which have smaller relative reductions in stomatal conductance, because of the poorer aerodynamic coupling of the canopy to the atmosphere in crops. The small decreases in evapotranspiration at elevated [CO2] may themselves be important to crop production in dry environments, but changes in climate and microclimate caused by reduced stomatal conductance could also be important to crop production.Oecologia 06/2004; 140(1):1-10. · 3.01 Impact Factor