Solving the structure of protein complexes is particularly challenging when they contain many subunits. In the case of the APC, a fruitful strategy has been to gain information by subtracting subunits. See Article p.227 and Letter p.274
"The assembly and three-dimensional structure of APC/C remain poorly understood for the time being . Three-dimensional electron microscopic structural analysis of yeast APC/C located APC1 in an L-shaped rod that links APC2 to CDC23, whereas CDC23 is connected to APC5 with APC4 interconnecting APC1 and APC5 , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that initiates chromosome segregation and mitotic exit by targeting critical cell-cycle regulators for proteolytic destruction. Previously, seven APC/C subunit homologues were identified in the genome of Trypanosoma brucei. In the present study, we tested five of them in yeast complementation studies and found none of them capable of complementing the yeast mutants lacking the corresponding subunits, suggesting significant discrepancies between the two APC/C's. Subunit homologues of mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) have not yet been identified in T. brucei, raising the possibility that a MCC-APC/C complex equivalent may not exist in T. brucei. We performed tandem affinity purification of the protein complex containing a APC1 fusion protein expressed in the cells enriched in different phases of the cell cycle of procyclic form T. brucei, and compared their protein profiles using LC-MS/MS analyses. The seven putative APC/C subunits were identified in the protein complex throughout the cell cycle together with three additional proteins designated the associated proteins (AP) AP1, AP2 and AP3. Abundance of the 10 proteins remained relatively unchanged throughout the cell cycle, suggesting that they are the core subunits of APC/C. AP1 turned out to be a homologue of APC4. An RNAi knockdown of APC4 and AP3 showed no detectable cellular phenotype, whereas an AP2 knockdown enriched the cells in G2/M phase. The AP2-depleted cells showed stabilized mitotic cyclin B. An accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated cyclin B was indicated in the cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, demonstrating the involvement of proteasome in degrading poly-ubiquitinated cyclin B. In all, a 10-subunit APC/C machinery with a conserved function is identified in T. brucei without linking to a MCC-like complex, thus indicating a unique T. brucei APC/C.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(3):e59258. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059258 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rice tiller is a specialized grain-bearing branch that contributes greatly to grain yield. The MONOCULM 1 (MOC1) gene is the first identified key regulator controlling rice tiller number; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we report a novel rice gene, Tillering and Dwarf 1 (TAD1), which encodes a co-activator of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C), a multi-subunit E3 ligase. Although the elucidation of co-activators and individual subunits of plant APC/C involved in regulating plant development have emerged recently, the understanding of whether and how this large cell-cycle machinery controls plant development is still very limited. Our study demonstrates that TAD1 interacts with MOC1, forms a complex with OsAPC10 and functions as a co-activator of APC/C to target MOC1 for degradation in a cell-cycle-dependent manner. Our findings uncovered a new mechanism underlying shoot branching and shed light on the understanding of how the cell-cycle machinery regulates plant architecture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.
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