Is Early Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis Safe in Trauma Patients With Intracranial Hemorrhage
ABSTRACT Patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are at high risk for venous thromboembolic sequelae; however, prophylaxis is often delayed because of the perceived risk of intracranial hemorrhagic exacerbation. The goal of this study was to determine whether enoxaparin for early venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is safe for hemodynamically stable patients with TBIs.
This is a retrospective cohort study from a Level I Trauma Center of patients with TBIs receiving early (0-72 hours) or late (>72 hours) VTE prophylaxis. Inclusion criteria included evidence of acute intracranial hemorrhagic injury (IHI) on admission computed tomography, head/neck abbreviated injury score≥3, age≥16 years, and hospital length of stay≥72 hours. Exclusion criteria included intracranial pressure monitor/ventriculostomy, current systemic anticoagulation, pregnancy, coagulopathy, history of DVT, ongoing intra-abdominal hemorrhage 24 hours postadmission, and preexisting inferior vena cava filter. Progression of IHI defined as lesion expansion/new IHI on repeat computed tomography.
Totally, 669 patients were identified: 268 early (40.1%) and 401 late (59.9%), with a mean injury severity score of 27.8±10.2 and 29.4±11, respectively. Head neck abbreviated injury score of 3 (47% vs. 34%), 4 (42% vs. 46%), 5 (11% vs. 19%), and 6 (0% vs. 1%) were reported for the early and late treatment groups, respectively. Mean time to prophylaxis was 2.77 days±0.49 days and 5.31 days±1.97 days. IHI progression before prophylaxis was 9.38% versus 17.41% (p<0.001) and after prophylaxis was 1.46% versus 1.54% (p>0.9). Proportions of proximal DVT were 1.5% versus 3.5% (p=0.117) and pulmonary embolism were 1.5% versus 2.2% (p=0.49). There were no differences in injury severity score, age, and pelvic and/or long bone fractures.
We found no evidence that early VTE prophylaxis increases the rate of IHI progression in hemodynamically stable patients with TBIs. The natural rate of IHI progression observed is comparable with previous studies. Although not powered to detect differences in the incidence of DVT and pulmonary embolism, the data trend toward increased proportions of both VTE outcomes in the late group.
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ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as an alteration in brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force. Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of morbidity and disability and is considered a major public health concern. Traumatic brain injury sequelae can lead to long-term impairments in physical, cognitive, behavioral, and social function. Traumatic brain injury rehabilitation requires an interdisciplinary holistic team approach in the management of medical complications, the prevention of further disability, and helping patients return to their highest level of independence. The authors review TBI pathophysiology, grading severity, common medical complications, cognitive rehabilitation, prognosis, and common outcomes used in TBI rehabilitation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Seminars in Neurology 02/2015; 35(1):e1-e13. DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1549094 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To synthesize the existing literature on benefits and risks of anticoagulant use after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Systematic review. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Health Star, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) on October 11, 2012, and updated on September 2, 2013, using terms related to TBI and anticoagulants. Main Measures: Human studies evaluating the effects of post-TBI anticoagulation on venous thromboembolism, hemorrhage, mortality, or coagulation parameters with original analyses were eligible for the review. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guideline was followed throughout the conduct of the review. Results: Thirty-nine eligible studies were identified from the literature, of which 23 studies with complete information on post-TBI anticoagulant use and patient outcomes were summarized in this review. Meta-analysis was unwarranted because of varying methodological design and quality of the studies. Twenty-one studies focused on the effects of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (PTP) post-TBI on venous thromboembolism and/or progression of intracranial hemorrhage, whereas 2 randomized controlled trials analyzed coagulation parameters as the result of anticoagulation. Conclusion: Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis appears to be safe among TBI patients with stabilized hemorrhagic patterns. More evidence is needed regarding effectiveness of PTP in preventing venous thromboembolism as well as preferred agent, dose, and timing for PTP.Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 07/2014; DOI:10.1097/HTR.0000000000000077 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite progress in the management of adults with severe traumatic brain injury, several controversies persist. Among the unresolved issues of greatest concern to neurocritical care clinicians and scientists are the following: (1) the best use of technological advances and the data obtained from multimodality monitoring; (2) the use of mannitol and hypertonic saline in the management of increased intracranial pressure; (3) the use of decompressive craniectomy and barbiturate coma in refractory increased intracranial pressure; (4) therapeutic hypothermia as a neuroprotectant; (5) anemia and the role of blood transfusion; and (6) venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in severe traumatic brain injury. Each of these strategies for managing severe traumatic brain injury, including the postulated mechanism(s) of action and beneficial effects of each intervention, adverse effects, the state of the science, and critical care nursing implications, is discussed.AACN Advanced Critical Care 04/2012; 23(2):188-203. DOI:10.1097/NCI.0b013e31824db4f3