Comparative Approaches Regarding Fiscal Systems in European Union

Theoretical and Applied Economics 01/2008; 04(521)(supplement)(04(521)(supplement)):65-74.
Source: RePEc

ABSTRACT The role and the dimension of the state involvement in the economy represent the most important topic debated on by all the economic schools. To achieve this target, the state can use as an instrument the fiscal policy. For Romania, the present time brings forth new challenges - the joining to the European Union. The fiscal policy has to be achieved so as to support the nominal and real convergence, in the same time being flexible enough to make easier some inner and outer shocks in the moment of joining. We presented the main features of the European Union fiscal systems, for the fiscal revenues: corporate on income tax, personal income tax, social security contributions, value added tax, excise tax. The analysis was realized for 1995-2007.

Download full-text


Available from: Paun Cristian, Sep 09, 2014
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An analogy with the way ant colonies function has suggested the definition of a new computational paradigm, which we call ant system (AS). We propose it as a viable new approach to stochastic combinatorial optimization. The main characteristics of this model are positive feedback, distributed computation, and the use of a constructive greedy heuristic. Positive feedback accounts for rapid discovery of good solutions, distributed computation avoids premature convergence, and the greedy heuristic helps find acceptable solutions in the early stages of the search process. We apply the proposed methodology to the classical traveling salesman problem (TSP), and report simulation results. We also discuss parameter selection and the early setups of the model, and compare it with tabu search and simulated annealing using TSP. To demonstrate the robustness of the approach, we show how the ant system (AS) can be applied to other optimization problems like the asymmetric traveling salesman, the quadratic assignment and the job-shop scheduling. Finally we discuss the salient characteristics-global data structure revision, distributed communication and probabilistic transitions of the AS.
    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CYBERNETICS 02/1996; 26(1):29-41. DOI:10.1109/3477.484436 · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For 98 countries in the period 1960–1985, the growth rate of real per capita GDP is positively related to initial human capital (proxied by 1960 school-enrollment rates) and negatively related to the initial (1960) level of real per capita GDP. Countries with higher human capital also have lower fertility rates and higher ratios of physical investment to GDP. Growth is inversely related to the share of government consumption in GDP, but insignificantly related to the share of public investment. Growth rates are positively related to measures of political stability and inversely related to a proxy for market distortions.
    Quarterly Journal of Economics 02/1991; 106(2):407-43. DOI:10.2307/2937943 · 5.92 Impact Factor
  • Review of Economic Studies 06/1962; 29(3). DOI:10.2307/2295953 · 2.81 Impact Factor
Show more