Article

Lack of dietary diversity and dyslipidaemia among stunted overweight children: the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey

National Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanwei Road 29 Hao, Beijing 100050, People's Republic of China.
Public Health Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.48). 02/2011; 14(5):896-903. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980010002971
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Both stunting and overweight are present in children across China. Seemingly paradoxical, these two conditions can also coexist in the same child. The aim was to examine the associations between dietary food/nutrient intake and plasma lipid profiles related to stunting and overweight status.
The 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey was a family-based nationally representative cross-sectional study.
Thirty-one provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities.
The study included 13,770 children aged 2-17 years. The sample size for the four exposure groups was 10,814 for children of normal height and weight, 2128 for stunted, 729 for overweight and 99 for stunted overweight.
Compared with children of normal height and weight, stunted and stunted overweight children consumed more high-energy-dense foods with a lower dietary diversity score, less protein, polyunsaturated fat and Fe, and a higher molar ratio of phytate to Ca. On the contrary, overweight children tended to consume significantly less carbohydrates and more protein and fat. Overall, stunted overweight children consumed lower amounts of vegetables, fruit, white meat (poultry and fish) and more milk. The OR for prevalent dyslipidaemia were 1·32 (95% CI 1·13, 1·53), 1·76 (95% CI 1·48, 2·09) and 2·59 (95% CI 1·65, 4·07) among stunted, overweight and stunted overweight children, respectively, compared with children of normal height and weight. In addition, being overweight was significantly associated with high glucose concentrations, whereas stunting was significantly associated with having anaemia.
Limited dietary diversity and intake of high-energy-dense foods were notably observed among stunted overweight children. Furthermore, being stunted and/or overweight was associated with an increased likelihood of unhealthy lipid profiles.

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    • "For example, dietary diversity characteristics may have exerted an additional effect on hsCRP levels, over and above the aforementioned effects of individual nutrients. Previous studies by others showed that dietary diversity was associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risks such as stunting and overweight among Chinese children (Li et al., 2011), Bolivian Amazonian women (Benefice et al., 2007) and Mexican adults (Flores et al., 2010). Similarly, an association between diverse diets and lower risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer has been reported in a study of cause-specific mortality risks (Kant et al., 1995). "
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    American Journal of Human Biology 11/2014; DOI:10.1002/ajhb.22600 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    • "The dietary diversity score (DDS), as measured by a quantitative number of food groups, has become a widely used method of determining variety in the diet, and by proxy, nutrient adequacy [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. A low DDS also has been associated with low weight and stunted growth [6] [7], cardiovascular risk [8] [9], dyslipidemia [10], and higher probability of metabolic syndrome [11]. Numerous classification systems have evolved in determining dietary diversity adequacy with the number of food group indicators ranging from 6 to 21 groups (Table 1). "
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    • "However, the bulk of published studies focus on the implication of DDS on obesity, metabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease risks in developed countries or nutrition transition contexts (e.g. Azadbakht and Esmaillzadeh, 2011; Azadbakht et al., 2006; Flores et al., 2010; Kant and Graubard, 2005; Roberts et al., 2005; Li et al., 2011). The usefulness of DDS to predict micronutrient health outcomes for adults has only recently been explicitly demonstrated using dietary and laboratory data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with U.S. adults (Kant and Graubard, 2005). "
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