Perioperative management of low birth weight infants for open-heart surgery

Department of Anesthesiology, Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital, Stanford, CA, USA.
Pediatric Anesthesia (Impact Factor: 1.85). 02/2011; 21(5):538-53. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2011.03529.x
Source: PubMed


Infants of birth weight ≤2500 g are termed low birth weight (LBW). These children often have considerable morbidity from prematurity and intra-uterine growth restriction. Additionally, LBW infants have increased risk for cardiac and noncardiac congenital anomalies and may require surgery. Primary rather than palliative surgical repair of cardiac lesions has been preferred in recent years. However, LBW remains a risk factor for increased mortality and morbidity after open-heart surgery (OHS). There is a paucity of information about the anesthetic challenges presented by LBW infants undergoing OHS. This review summarizes the perioperative issues of relevance to anesthesiologists who manage these high-risk patients. Emphasis is placed on management concerns that are unique to LBW infants. Retrospective data from the authors' institution are provided for those aspects of anesthetic care that lack published studies. Successful outcome often requires substantial hospital resources and collaborative multi-disciplinary effort.

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  • Pediatric Anesthesia 05/2011; 21(5):471-2. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9592.2011.03592.x · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional management of low birth weight and very low birth weight neonates was composed of deferring corrective surgery by aggressive medical management or palliative surgery which does not require cardiopulmonary bypass. However, while waiting for weight gain, these neonates are at risk for various comorbidities. In the current era, this "wait and let the baby grow" approach has not been shown to result in better clinical outcomes. Early primary repair hence has become the standard strategy for congenital heart disease requiring surgery in these neonates. However, there still exist some circumstances, which are considered to be unfavorable for corrective surgery due to medical, physiologic, surgeon's technical and institutional-systemic factors. We reviewed the recent literature and examined the reasons for delaying or not delaying surgery.
    Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual of the Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 04/2013; 16(1):13-20. DOI:10.1053/j.pcsu.2013.01.004
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: A recent Society of Thoracic Surgeons database study showed that low weight (<2.5 kg) at surgery was associated with high operative mortality (16%). We sought to assess the outcomes after cardiac repair in patients weighing <2.5 kg versus 2.5 to 4.5 kg in an institution with a dedicated neonatal cardiac program and to determine the potential role played by prematurity, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (STAT) risk categories, uni/biventricular pathway, and surgical timing. Methods: We analyzed the outcomes (hospital mortality, early reintervention, postoperative length of stay, mortality [at the last follow-up point]) in patients weighing <2.5 kg at surgery (n = 146; group 1) and 2.5 to 4.5 kg (n = 622; group 2), who had undergone open or closed cardiac repairs from January 2006 to December 2012 at our institution. The statistical analysis was stratified by prematurity, STAT risk category, uni/biventricular pathway, and usual versus delayed surgical timing. Univariate versus multivariate risk analysis was performed. The mean follow-up was 21.6 ± 25.6 months. Results: Hospital mortality in group 1 was 10.9% (n = 16) versus 4.8% (n = 30) in group 2 (P = .007). The postoperative length of stay and early unplanned reintervention rate were similar between the 2 groups. Late mortality in group 1 was 0.7% (n = 1). In group 1, early outcomes were independent of the STAT risk category, uni/biventricular pathway, or surgical timing compared with group 2. A lower gestational age at birth was an independent risk factor for early mortality in group 1. Conclusions: A dedicated multidisciplinary neonatal cardiac program can yield good outcomes for neonates and infants weighing <2.5 kg independently of the STAT risk category and uni/biventricular pathway. A lower gestational age at birth was an independent risk factor for hospital mortality.
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